The desert bighorn sheep has suffered from the immigration of Europeans. Before the Europeans, America is populated, were to be found, the skillful climbers everywhere, in the deserts between California and the Gulf of Mexico. However, hunting settlers and imported diseases have been eradicated, the type almost. A few Hundred bighorn sheep roam today the border region between the United States and Mexico. Only in the past few years, the Population has recovered thanks to the efforts of conservationists, something. But now, the ruminants may suffer again the consequences of immigration – more specifically, under the immigration policy of Donald Trump .
The US President wants to establish through a wall between the USA and Mexico, so right through the habitat of the bighorn sheep. And many other species. A continuous barrier in the 3200-Kilometer-long border, would appreciate the habitat of 1100 animal and 400 plant species by cutting, biologists in an analysis in the journal "BioScience". The study is also a call, from the construction of the wall to drain. This "at risk are some of the most biologically diverse regions of the continent", warn the scientists. 62 species that live along the border, according to the Red list of conservation Union as endangered. The Co-author, Jennifer Miller of the conservation organization Defenders of Wildlife called the cross-border barriers in the "Scientific American" "a unbridled ecological disaster". About 2600 scientists from all over the world have signed the call, more than half of them from the USA.
Nine herds documented
in the light of the human dimensions of Trumps, border policy, it may seem like a small detail blade, to ensure that even a few animals. Finally, a high barrier separates family members from each other, living on different sides, it slows perhaps the cultural exchange and cross-border trade. For Trumps voters, in turn, it is a matter of national security and the defense of drug cartels. However, whether the wall serves this purpose, is very questionable. So Mexican cartels smuggle most of the Heroin through the Wilderness, but go over the regular border crossings in the United States, hidden in trucks and cars. And most illegal immigrants come legally with a visa and stay after its expiry. The influence of a wall on these factors would be manageable.
However, it is practically sure that the natural takes you through the border wall damage. The border between the United States and Mexico passes through six regions, whose climate have resulted in tables and geographical characteristics in many cases are unique Ecosystems such as the Sky Islands of Arizona, New Mexico and two Mexican States. These "sky Islands" are island-like mountains, rising 1300 feet above the level, with its own Flora and Fauna.
For many, it is essential to wander between such island-like habitats and also across the border strip, about in search of water, or for mating. As documented in the bighorn sheep nine flocks, which change regularly the pages. The last in the USA, wild jaguars and ocelots would cut a wall of the larger populations in Central America. In isolation, the cats could not survive in the long term, maybe. Even some butterfly and bird species would be a barrier to a wall. The Brazilian pygmy owl flies rarely higher than four feet above the ground, the owl has a hard time when flying over the trees.
Trump prefers, a massive wall of concrete
How high the wall is, what she looks like at all, will be decisive for the environmental impact. In fact, there are between the US and Mexico border plants on a length of 1050 kilometers, for the most part, erected during the administration of George W. Bush. About half of the existing barriers to keep vehicles, for individuals, they are not an obstacle. Wild animals can easily slip through. With these barriers Trump, however, is dissatisfied. He prefers a massive wall made of concrete, the last of the White house spoke of a "steel barrier". Ecologically, both of which would be bad.
"It is important that the barrier is permeable," write the biologists in their analysis, in "BioScience". "And from the perspective of a Jaguar, an insurmountable fence has the same effect as a wall." In addition, it is not just about the building itself – for the border of thousands of kilometers of new roads would be needed, which also leave tracks in the Wilderness patrols along them. The scientists particularly annoyed that, in the name of border protection regulations for the protection of rare animals and the environment simply ignored. A law the Bush Administration of 2005, the government of Trump major uses quickly.
the nature conservation plays no role once it comes to borders in Europe is no different. With regard to the pace and thoroughness in the construction of new walls, should look Trump quite jealous over the Atlantic ocean. Between the EU and its neighbouring countries, according to an analysis in the journal "PLOS Biology" is now fencing for a length of 2250 kilometres – more than twice the length as on the U.S. outer border. Many of these were hastily drawn during and after the refugee crisis of 2015.
Even between individual EU member States 400 kilometres, there are barrier. Slovenia has secured the border with Croatia with a barbed wire reinforced fence that runs right through nature conservation areas. In this Region, the Dinaric mountains, many live some rare species such as the brown bear, the Wolf or the Eurasian lynx, which are often subject to special protection and their individual populations are now separated from each other. The genetic diversity and Viability of the isolated groups could suffer. The area of many of the wolf pack is located on both sides of the border, also bears wander long distances, the lead, of course, also across national borders.
In Europe, the new fences for the conservation of nature is a big setback. Wild animals in Europe benefited for the past 30 years, from the fall of the Iron curtain and the gradual opening of borders in Eastern Europe. So were able to connect previously separate habitats, wolves and lynxes in the direction of Western Europe to immigrate. These times come to an end. In many places, to be again dragged up barricades high or strengthened, currently at the border between Hungary and Serbia, or between Russia and the Ukraine. The Baltic States are thinking about new fortifications on the Russian border.
The environmental protection plays virtually no role at all
"The Problem's not going away," says John Linnell of the Norwegian Institute for nature research and first author of the study in "PLOS Biology". He sees nature conservation as a collateral damage of a populist shift in politics and society. "This way of thinking will be the preservation of wild animals in any way beneficial." Linnell, the short-term effects of fences, but the damage they can cause in the long run, fear less. The could explore but it is hard.
"as soon As it has to do with issues such as border protection, immigration and defence, and pushes you against a wall." The operating everything according to its own logic, in the environment virtually no role-playing games. So many of the fences in Eastern Europe, against the EU could breach law, argue the scientists, because their construction often environmental impact assessments were missing.
At the US southern border, some American and Mexican scientists of intimidation, reports of attempts on the part of border officials, as they were on field research, on-the-go. A small consolation, at least: How the "New York Times" reported, Donald Trump walls of the existing border yet not a single Kilometer was added.
Created: 15.01.2019, 18:57 PM