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Andreas Bergh: Make roads great again

Regeringsfrågan looks to have been settled, at least for a while. In exchange for that release Stefan Löfven as prime minister has the Centre party and the Liberals received promises of a long series of reforms that will be investigated and implemented, including the liberalisation of both the housing market and the labour market. But in broad's enthusiasm is limited: Many believe that the reforms will be buried in the inquiries, instead of be carried out. The centre party and the Liberals have been conned by the Swedish maktpartiet number one, the social democrats.

of Course, there is such a risk. However, the point is that investigations has historically played a crucial role in both the creation and implementation of liberalising reforms in Sweden. After that in the 1970s, have been of a highly regulated mixed economy, Sweden has changed significantly in the direction of a market economy, economic freedom, and transparency. In particular, during the period from 1985 to 1994, the rate of change is high, and Sweden were liberalised more than most comparable countries.

lessons from the story. First, it can be concluded that there is not required a financial crisis to implement reforms. Krisåren in the beginning of the 1990s, gave an increased pressure for change, but many important reforms both initiated and carried out during the 1980s boom. Secondly, it shows the Swedish experience that it does not require a civil government to implement market reforms. A lot happened under the government Bildt 1991-1994, but when the government took office had a shakeup of Sweden has already come a very long way.

The third and perhaps the most topical lesson of the Swedish reformhistoria is that almost all liberalisation was preceded by a thorough investigation, which helped to create a consensus on the description of the world and changing needs. In addition, where investigations are often crucial to creating a consensus across blockgränsen on their design. This consensus has in turn reduced the concern that reforms will be torn up through changes in government, which contributed to that Sweden today has a relatively good business environment.

The most recent lesson of the Swedish reformhistoria is that almost all liberalisation was preceded by a thorough investigation.

is in its place. Credit and foreign exchange markets were liberalised in the mid-1980s, after investigations found that the controls did not work as they were designed to do – and, in practice, could be circumvented by companies that knew the tricks of the trade. The pension reform came after an investigation initiated in 1984, six years later (!) had been agreed on a major pension reform was called for. Further investigation was appointed, and worked for four years to formulate the principles for a reformed pension scheme that both the social democrats and the bourgeois could support.

Despite the long investigation made the good foresight that the reform could be phased in gradually for persons born between 1938 and 1953, which was crucial to getting political support for the reform. Deregulation of rail and air, the Riksbank's independence and the new budget process, which prevents the parliament to clubs through unfinanced expenditure increases, are further examples. It is also worth recalling that the taximonopolet in Sweden was abolished in 1990 by a socialist government, which considered that increased competition would have desirable effects.

a number of disquieting sign worth highlighting. Sometime around 1995, came to a halt, the Swedish reform. Shortcomings in the Swedish official investigations began to attract the attention of more and more. The national audit office has on several occasions pointed out that the investigations get less resources and less time. In 2016 demokratiutredning was a similar criticism of the tighter timeframes, findings which are given in advance and that the government will prepare legislative proposals before the inquiry is finished.

An increased number of enmansutredningar allows it to build consensus effect is reduced, and the interest groups and organizations experience that it is harder to affect. To this can be added to researchers and scholars, whose participation in the investigations and committees have been crucial for the quality of reforms, striking a low level of economic compensation for their efforts. If they have to take a leave of absence to participate in or lead investigations, it is often an economic loss of business.

the political will to let the investigations work alone is missing. The big socialförsäkringsutredningen which was initially headed by Irene Interested, not out in the lot, which was a disappointment for many. Ilmar Reepalus investigation if the gains in welfare resulting not only in a proposal that was voted down by the parliament, this inquiry was also scathing criticism from diverse quarters, including Vårdföretagarna, the national audit office, the green Party and one of the phd economists who himself was under investigation. The Swedish inquiry system should be able to do better than that. Now seems to be an exceptionally good opportunity for a shake-up.

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