The United States of America are divided. Here are the Conservatives, the Republicans, the liberals, the Democrats. They live in a variety of media-bubbles, both groups see different TV programs, frequenting different websites, and yet they are similar in their one-sided view of reality. The conservative Fox television is the a side of the Media coin, MSNBC the other.
The recently published book "Network Propaganda, Manipulation, Disinformation, and Radicalization in American Politics" by Yochai Benkler, Robert Faris Hal Roberts, they all work establish three at the Berkman Small Center in Harvard, wants a different point of view. The Conservatives and the liberals have no comparable mechanisms, how they evaluate Stories in the media. According to the study, Liberal facts, Conservatives want to see their prejudices reinforced. Even sharper: Liberals want journalism, Conservative want Propaganda. The rights of the media Ecosystem is different, the authors write, categorically from the Rest of the media environment and be much more vulnerable to disinformation, lies, half-truths. But, and this is his particular strength, it works by radio talker Rush Limbaugh to television channel Fox properly. Fake News are facts, and then as a Fake-Fake-News again of the facts.
architecture of political communication
The study has at its core not a General criticism of the media, but will, on very broad data analysis, the architecture of the current (political) communication in the United States In the centre of the right-wing media Ecosystem, how it works, what causes it. Always against the Background that the Left and liberals such a closed, homogeneous, and effective Mechanics never managed to, of this "feedback loop", Communications, circuits have no beginning and no end, but, in Essence, on confirmation, if not escalation created.
The two division of the medial Ecosystems, that there are on the left side are much less likely to act, actions of the rotation of Information, disinformation, to the denunciation. Donald Trumps Russia-entanglement is one of the few examples. Otherwise, truth-seeking, "the search for truth prevails". In the case of the Conservatives, see Breitbart, is part of the reverse approach, the Marginalize of inappropriate facts and their escalation, radicalization in the program. You must, as US President Donald Trump's "Fake News" to shout, because messages are less tested on the truth content stamped as to their suitability for the Ecosystem. Truth and truths are relativized and relatively. The truth is on constant repeat, with the means of Quasi-journalism, and without self-correction, to certainty.
The study is reminiscent of the accusations against the former presidential candidate for the Democrats, Hillary Clinton, who was accused of pedophilia, that is to say the abuse of refugee children. The story was an invention, a lie. While the left-wing media ignored it, as soon as the nonsense-character was, apparently, brought the right-wing media in new versions during the election campaign to the presidency of the readers, listeners and viewers – what was the credibility of the incredible Story constantly grow.
the Internet and social media responsible for Disruption
on the question of what media does to technology for consumers, the researchers relaxed. Neither the Internet nor the social media had promoted the Disruption of the media world, where she was in the Radio and television long ago in a disruptive way. Internet, social media, Russian Propaganda, Cambridge Analytica, Facebook play their roles, but they would have to operate has created nothing that could not have been there already: the media, the conservative Propaganda.
The authors are optimistic, and pessimistic. Optimistic, because the Internet and social media can exert no direct pressure on the democracy and its institutions. Outside of the right-wing media Ecosystem and the Online communication is even more Mainstream tracks than before. Pessimistic, because political leaders and parties on the corresponding media win, but with disinformation and hatred of the messages that provoke people and to manipulate.
solutions in sight? The journalism needs to be strengthened, to be not only neutral, but the truth behind a story, a statement of addiction. Very hard to produce, but, so say the authors in their conclusion, "we pay homage to all of the different methods, because some of them can actually roll up quite a bit of uncertainty and mistrust". Since the Problem has deep political roots, it is not necessary only a technocratic, but also political and cultural agents.
Both need to write to be overcome: Propaganda and left Criticism, such as Benkler, Faris and Roberts. So to develop a framework, "is the true answer to the threat of the post-truth Era".More about
What is the truth originates? Only a fool despise foolMalte Lehming
Yochai Benkler, Robert Faris, Hal Roberts: Network Propaganda. Manipulation, Disinformation, and Radicalization in American Politics. Oxford University Press In 2018. 462 p., 26,50 €. For free at Google Books