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Tuberculosis, vaccine most effective if given intravenously

THE VACCINE, anti-Tb called BCG (bacille Calmette Guérin), is based on the bacteria that causes tuberculosis in cattle, is approaching 100 years old and is th

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Tuberculosis, vaccine most effective if given intravenously
THE VACCINE, anti-Tb called BCG (bacille Calmette Guérin), is based on the bacteria that causes tuberculosis in cattle, is approaching 100 years old and is the only one so far be used, even if only in the first years of life and with limited efficacy. One of the problems is just this, does not always work: now a research that appeared in Nature, on the part of specialists of the School of Medicine of the University of Pittsburgh, shows with monkeys, that if the vaccine is administered intravenously rather than under the skin, its effectiveness multiplies in an extraordinary way. Currently the vaccine BCG is not used anywhere. At least not in Countries where Tb is not so widespread: for example in Italy only for specific categories, and in the United States is not recommended because it is low-risk disease. The vaccine today is injected under the skin and in its early days was given by the mouth. The experiment described in Nature in regards to the monkeys, the animals particularly susceptible to pulmonary Tb, has compared different forms of administration, under my skin, nasal spray, intravenous, combined.

Well, the vaccine intravenously would be a protection in monkeys six months from the administration, in the moment in which it exposes the subject to risk due to tuberculosis. The researchers say: "There has been a reduction of the bacterial load, in the case of a vaccine via the intravenous, 100,000 times: 9 monkeys out of 10 have not shown any inflammation".
the way of The vaccines According to some studies of the effectiveness of the BCG vaccine would reduce the chances of contracting tuberculosis in children (miliary and meningitis tb) up to 80%, while in adulthood in the form variable (from 19% to 52%). It is seen that much depends on the environment: the results of the trial in Great Britain or India (where Tb is widespread) are very discordant. The expert of the Superior Health Institute, Lanfranco Fattorini, writes on the official site that "the only vaccine the tuberculosis is a live attenuated vaccine, BCG (bacille Calmette-Guerin), which, while protecting in the first 5-10 years of life is not effective in the subsequent period or for the prevention of disease or for the interruption of transmission of TB in the population."

Recent trials have recorded in adolescents a revaccination BCG significantly reduces infection by this bacterium, thereby increasing the security. A trial of 2018 to see if a re-vaccination with BCG was protective and had shown a coverage of 45%. Now the greater effectiveness of the vaccine via the intravenous route if identical on the man, could give new perspectives.

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The researchers are optimistic also because it has already been demonstrated both in animals and in man for a vaccine, antimalarial experimental an absolute improvement of effectiveness in the administration intravenously; then-theoretically - say the experts - what would be possible. The problem is that an intravenous is operation much more delicate and dangerous of an intradermal injection, if you think to use in areas where hygiene is poor, the health personnel is lacking or not particularly prepared. The cost of the vaccine BCG is below the dollar in countries with a Tb endemic; it is considered safe for infants.

BLOG In small doses. The end of extreme poverty: the effects of tb at the global level latent Tb and immunization In the face of ten million people infected with active Tb in the world each year, there are a billion and 800 million people who have the bacterium tuberculosis, but in the latent form. Their body as "hibernating" (better rendered "the sleeper") the bacterium, however, is ready to flee and take action by making the active disease as soon as it weakens the immune system. A recent research appeared on magazine American Journal for Respiratory Clinical Care Medicine, showed how the administration for three months of a combination of older drugs (isionazide and rifapentine), and protects the monkeys from the development of active tuberculosis in a total way. A resounding breakthrough in the field of prevention with an antibiotic regimen short (3 months compared to the 6-9 of the guidelines). From the other side at the end of 2019, the New England Journal of Medicine have identified the first consistent data on a new preventive vaccine for Tb. Experimentation on 3500 adults took place in Kenya, South Africa and Zambia. This is the vaccine candidate for the multinational company GlaxoSmithKline called the M72/AS01E, which would give protection to the pulmonary Tb above the 55% in three years. A result is considered good even if the measles vaccine coverage, close to 98%.


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