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The university, the charge of the 200 thousand graduates entrepreneurs
They founded a company. But there are still very few: 7% of graduates in the Italian universities between 2004 and 2018. And yet their businesses are more vital, have a growth rate and survival the most high, which forms the legal of the most complex and help to create job opportunities even in areas in the greatest difficulty from the point of view of economic development, as in the South. In addition, there are sectors, such as agriculture, that grow by the hand of graduates-entrepreneurs, in contrast to the national figure. In short, the graduate should, even to do business, observes Marina Timothy , director of the AlmaLaurea consortium, which has presented today the Report, "Graduated and entrepreneurship".

this is a first study on the entrepreneurship of the Italian graduates curated together with the department of corporate Sciences of the university of Bologna and Unioncamere. There are a total of 205.137 graduates , who have founded a business, the 7%. The companies they founded are 236.362, and represent 3.9% of the total number of companies present in Italy in September 2019. A given judged to be "significant" by the secretary-general of Unioncamere Giuseppe Tripoli . "The figure is increasing as time passes from the first degree, is fundamental," adds Timothy. "Stop the percentage is small, the survey should be read in its entirety. Surely it is important to generate and sustain a culture of entrepreneurship in university education".

The economist Maurizio Sobrero , director of corporate Sciences of the Alma Mater, sees the glass as half full: "According to Istat data - remember - the total number of employed persons in italy was 23.5 million, employers among these are 1.4 million, 5.9% of the total. Then, if them relate to the total population we are at 2.3%. 7% of graduates who have founded a business is not a little".

The 61.3% of the graduates of the founders holds a position by the holder, 22.1% by administrator and 16.6% by the member. The 37,1% of the founders had created their own business before graduating (13.4% before enrolling in the university, 23.7% during university studies), while 27,0 per cent by the third year after graduation. The remaining proportion (35.9 percent) has started her own business after the third year from graduation. Among the founders of the men represent the 53,9%, while the women 46.1% (in the population of graduates, the percentages are, respectively, 40,1%, 59.9).

"The study shows that, also in this field, as well as its orientation, the socio-economic context of the family exerts a decisive role. - observes the president of AlmaLaurea Ivano Dionigi - Therefore, in consideration of the current economic environment, the entrepreneurial culture must be encouraged through effective guidance activities and promotion of skills that facilitate the spread".

Among the founders, there is a greater presence of college graduates with parents who carry out the professions of the highest level: 11.5% has a father entrepreneur (this fee is 4.7% in the population of graduates), 39.0% had a father as a freelancer (which is 30.2% of the population), 7.4% has a father, leader, and 7.2% a father of directors/framework (in the population the percentages are, respectively, 7.0% and 8.4%). One of the founders has a father employed 21.2%, and a father worker 13.2% (in the population shares are, respectively, 29.9% and 19.2%). If you take into account the profession of the mothers of the founders, the distribution is different, but confirms these trends.

to 60.2% of the companies founded by graduates are individual; 24.8% from the company capital, 15.0%, from the company of people. This distribution is consistent with the national one. In the last ten years, in our population of firms, the percentage of the company's share capital is increased of 65,2% and around twice the rate of growth of the company's capital at the national level.

the 11.6% of the enterprises of the graduates work in the agricultural sector, 9.4% in industry and 79% in services. In the services, to mention only the most represented, there are sectors of the trade, then activities professional, scientific and technical, followed by financial and insurance activities; 7.5% in service activities accommodation and food; 6.9% in services on information and communication.

this Is especially micro business , with an annual turnover of less than € 2 million, based in the North of Italy. Of 9.821 businesses born in 2009, after ten years, it is still active 54.8% (this is approximately 5,400 companies). At the national level, of the 312mila businesses born in 2009, after 10 years, it is still active 40.6% (approximately 127mila). The growth rate is given by the ratio between the balance between registrations and terminations, for each year of observation, and the stock of the companies of graduates (236.362).

The growth rate is increased in the last ten years, rising from 2.2% in 2009 to 3.7% in 2018. At the national level, the rate of growth of the firms (calculated as the ratio between the balance between registrations and terminations, and the stock companies ' annual recorded) decreases from 1.2% in 2009 to 0.5% in 2018.

The innovative start-ups founded by the graduates are equal to 20.2% (2.127) of all innovative start-ups born in Italy (10.546). 24.3% of the innovative start-up operates in the sector of professional, scientific and technical activities.

"The survey," explains Marina Timothy - shows how the entrepreneurship of the graduates have positive outcomes in the context of the national context. The survey confirms, therefore, the given, already acquired by the investigation of: AlmaLaurea graduate agrees. Graduates have more chances to do business and has more chances to ensure the longevity of the company that created it."

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