the Study, which was called in the 19th century. Century, acquire knowledge, textbook. The usual form of teaching was the lecture, and many students wrote in eagerly. They hoped to create with your notes for reference, you could also use after the study.
developed As Wilhelm von Humboldt 1809/10 his Plan for a Berlin-based University, he was already in an altered understanding of Science. The University should be a place of the old feudal estates of procedure and the mediation of established Knowledge, but rather as an educational and research institution. The College should take, for Humboldt, the place where faculty and students Learn to "researchers". The University withdrew from all the education and free Learning to the students.
What could this mean practically, perhaps shows the Transcript of the students in Berlin, Friedrich Blanck. This sat in 1885, in a lecture by the philosopher and pedagogue Friedrich Paulsen, and wrote diligently. What is the Student of national Economics, was quoted in Paulsen's lecture, can we still read them today, because a family member gave his notes for 1939 in the 13-bound and 27 unbound folders of the library of the Berlin University. 32 of his "College books" – "College" here means lecture – are now digitized and available via the Homepage of the library of the Humboldt University of Berlin open to the Public.
The book was written for the lecture "anthropology and psychology"
The narrow book in leather-bound books were well set up in a library, but a simple reference works, they were not. The here selected the College Bulletin, will be issued in the Humboldt Forum, was created to Paulsen's lectures on "anthropology and psychology".
this Transcription is clear: students sit with their own knowledge and experience in the lecture hall, you process the Belonged to during the writing and critical thoughts. It is not easy to make during a lecture notes. In the case of more or less high speed it is at the same time, to follow the content and to record the Understood.
Blanck wrote in this lecture, Paulsen's probably paraphrasing, so, mutatis mutandis, with. He rarely had to correct later, but his rush to witness the sometimes to the end of the sloping lines. He passed the Written and underlined for him the Important with red and blue Crayon, maybe to prepare for an exam, moreover, he commented, and individual.
The record was a creative process
in this respect, the record certainly is creative. Requires Humboldt's idea to the research community is precisely this active role of the students? Sometimes the Student Blanck stood with the Professor, even on a level, if he doubted the validity of what is said. About Paulsen spoke about the Estimate of sizes, and Blanck kept in his College book, the words of the Professor, that a tax, levied in several Rates, pressures, and greater, than if you had to pay in a lump sum. But right next to it, the Student wrote in the energetic capital letters and with exclamation marks: "THIS I DOUBT!"
at the time learned of Paulsen's probably nothing of these Doubts, but today we can put the writings of his students, in addition to his works. Paulsen taught between 1877 and 1908, philosophy and education and took in the Empire had a significant influence on the development of the Prussian gymnasium. He understood the lecture, in a way, as a creative process: He let the lecture, he said, often only in the lecture, in the focus on the Audience and their questions. With small, closely described in notes he prepared for his Lectures. Some of them are now in the archive of the Humboldt-University. In front of our eyes so the discussion of Professor and Student, her struggle, and scientific Beliefs alive.
Kerrin Klinger is a scientific and educational historian at the library for education-historical research and a lecturer at the Humboldt-University.page 1 of 3 next page the struggle for truth "We always had to find everything right" info and further dates read article on one page