With a daily overtime was reached to end an agreement at the UN climate summit in Katowice on Saturday night. The world now has a book of rules for how they should work in order to reach the climate targets and klimatminister Isabella Lövin (MP) says she is pleased that they agreed.
– It is necessary with a book of rules to the paris agreement are to be met. Both Sweden and the EU estimates that we came up with something that was better than I expected, " she says.
at the same time, Isabella Lövin, that the negotiations have been characterised by both bitterness and distrust.
– Not at least when the last Saturday was a big controversy between the united states, saudi Arabia, Russia and Kuwait and, in principle, the rest of the world, about how one should relate to the IPCC's 1.5 to gradersrapport.
from the UN's intergovernmental panel on climate change IPCC was that the four countries have not wanted to ”welcome” the report, they believed instead that the report would ”be noted”.
"It is clear that it is a very negative signal for the poor countries when the rich countries that have strong economic interests in fossil fuels do not want to welcome the IPCC report," says Isabelle Lövin.
Mathias Fridahl, associate senior lecturer at Linköping university, who researches international climate policy describes the agreement in Katowice as an intermediate between the two positions.
" What you do is that you acknowledge and appreciate that the IPCC took on the task to make the report. It is a compromise between the need to appreciate the report's message and not say anything.
as a necessity to get around just the wording to ”welcome” the report. She believes that it could risk the whole rulebook.
– Because the feelings were so strong that it was clearly completely blocked on both sides, " she says.
the Reason for that report was to was to several small island nations in Paris in 2015, demanded that the IPCC were invited to do it.
– It sounds very ridiculous, does it matter if we say a note or welcome? But for the small island nations in the pacific, it is incredibly emotionally when a large country that historically has placed a lot of the rhetoric around climate change that they have on administrationsnivå in the united states, " says Mathias Fridahl.
" Then stand there very much for these small countries that are struggling with klimatanpassningar, erosion and sinking in the sea, in principle. Then it becomes an important symbolic issue for the countries not feel "stepped on", he continues.
if a rule book does not really that they must comply with the agreement. Instead, it may be seen as a guidance to follow the decisions taken.
" A decision like this is not agreement in itself. It is then formulated as that it is legally binding in some parts, that you should follow it and not only that, it is encouraged that you do it, " says Mathias Fridahl.
Had it been an agreement, they would have to go through the various countries ' national legislation.
– Now we have this base then we will see how well it is implemented. These negotiations disadvantage, " he says.
the negotiations in Katowice pulled out at the time is that all countries must agree before an agreement is reached. It is not enough that a majority stands behind the decision.
" It does also, of course, that once supplied a product so, it is expected that the countries are standing up behind the product. That is the advantage with this type of process, the loss in process efficiency and ambition to win in the effective implementation instead, " says Mathias Fridahl.
A matter of shot at the future is whether countries should be allowed to be credited with allowances in other countries. An issue on which Brazil had requirements that other countries do not want to accept.
– Everything which deals with international cooperation in terms of trade with emission allowances or emission credits, and the type of market mechanisms, missing completely. It gets to work on the coming year. The plan is that it should be decided at the meeting in Chile next year, " says Mathias Fridahl.
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