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Afghanistan, history of a long war almost twenty years
9 September 2001 the leader of The Resistance the afghan anti-Taliban, Ahmad Shah Massoud, was killed in a suicide attack by two arabs disguised by French journalists to the September 11 Attacks in the United States, September 20, The president of the United States George W. Bush asks the government of the Taliban to hand over Osama bin Laden and close the training camps of Al-Qaeda in the country. September 21, The taliban refused the ultimatum of Bush for lack of any evidence linking bin Laden to the attacks of 7 October Operation Enduring Freedom: the United States and the United Kingdom launched a campaign of aerial bombardment against Al-Qaeda and the Taliban, support the Northern Alliance November 14, Kabul falls, the Taliban will retreat in the stronghold of Kandahar, which will fall on the 9th of November, marking the end of the islamic Emirate on 5 December, The security Council of the United Nations authorizes the creation of the International Security Assistance Force to maintain security in Afghanistan and assist the Kabul government. ISAF will also include an Italian contingent, deployed first in Kabul and then to Herat 3-17 December Battle in the mountains of Tora Bora, Bin Laden fled into Pakistan, December 20, at The international Conference on Afghanistan in Germany, Hamid Karzai was chosen as head of the provisional Administration in April 2002 George W Bush proposes a plan for the reconstruction of Afghanistan in July 2002 A Loya Jirga (large assembly) emergency appointed Hamid Karzai chairman of the interim administration of Afghanistan on 1 march 2003, The secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld declares the end of the fighting” 8 August, The Nato assumes responsibility for ISAF mission on 14 December 2003, The Loya Jirga, with 502 delegates prepare a new afghan constitution 9 October 2004 Hamid Karzai wins the elections and is sworn in as president of the islamic Republic of Afghanistan, 2005 the Insurgency by the taliban after the decision of Pakistan to place the 80,000 soldiers on the border Line Durand with Afghanistan July 2006 And the summer of the insurgents: multiply the suicide attacks, and attacks with mines road, 5 march 2007, The Taliban will seize Daniele Mastrogiacomo in the province of Helmand. The envoy of the Republic will be released on march 19. The interpreter and the driver are killed may 13, 2007 Skirmishes in Afghanistan-Pakistan May 2009, The Pentagon-appointed head of the military general Stanley McChrystal, which theorizes the need to reduce the “collateral damage”, i.e. civilian casualties in November 2009 At the presidential elections, Hamid Karzai is confirmed for a second mandate in December 2009, the president of the United States Barack Obama sends more than 33,000 u.s. soldiers in Afghanistan. In total, the number of international troops are 150.000, June 23, 2010, After having expressed criticisms at the Us administration, McChrystal was replaced by David Petraeus, may 1, 2011 raid in Abbottabad, in Pakistan, special troops of the Usa kill Osama bin Laden, the December 2011 Bonn Conference to start the withdrawal of international troops and the Afghanistan reconstruction June 2013 The ISAF transfers responsibility for security to afghan forces, December 21, 2014 Ashraf Ghani and rival Abdullah Abdullah to agree to split the roles in the administration of afghanistan, 28 December 2014, the End of the ISAF mission, gives way to Resolute Support, assisting afghan forces-- August 2017, Donald Trump makes public the intention to withdraw the troops before the End of 2018 the Taliban and delegates from the Usa initiate peace negotiations at a high level in Doha, Qatar

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