To fattening piglets, the discus thrower Liesel Westermann felt reminds. The athletes had to take off in 1966 prior to the European Championships in Budapest, all of them. Then you had to be stark naked with a bib number in front of a medical Board back-and-forth marching. "As in the case of the Trichinella examination," she had occurred, noted the world-class athlete later in her autobiography: The only difference consisted in the fact that you "got the stamp on the butt", but on a file card.
the Couple was the name of the procedure, the the world athletics Federation (IAAF) introduced at the time, because rumors about male-looking athletes were from the Soviet bloc in the round. After protests against the degrading of women-meat inspection, the International Olympic Committee for the summer games in 1968, while a more discreet method by means of a cheek swab, the Barr Test, and later DNA analysis, but it was only in 2000 that the mandatory series of tests were abolished. ordered
in 1992 in Barcelona, the IOC medical professionals from assorted a mother of two children, due to their Chromosomes, such as the former athletes ' spokesman reported. The gender controls in the Sport, supposedly the Fairness obligation to protect women from men to compete, have the opposite effect: they have destroyed careers. The Least the company could have the person responsible for the Concerned, was to protect their anonymity. Sometimes, the public just was not even the position and the humiliation spared.
victory lists were for many years marked with asterisk gender is doubtful, it should. the hot
The high jump world record-holder of 1938 was excluded from competitions; they had, allegedly, to both male and female sex organs As the Polish Sprint Olympic champion of 1932, Stanislawa Walasiewicz, who died in Cleveland a violent death, were found in their autopsy of male sexual characteristics. Of the Polish season runner Ewa Klobukowska, it is known that they overhang at least one of the ominous Sextests before you, in 1967, was made, in accordance with a further control, a start-up waiver close. All of your world records have been deleted. For years it has been common practice, victory lists in the sports annals with an asterisk to be provided – gender status is doubtful should be that hot. Today, all of these cases are infinitely more nuanced.
Now, the discomfort, with the men athletes, look at the inside, generally speaking, as old as the Olympic games, the Greeks introduced the first gender controls, by going naked to their masculinity. But in the international sports organizations, is now everywhere, the scientific consensus is that to determine whether someone is a man or a woman is, the more criteria need to be considered than just the genes.
performance is not dependent on the X-or Y-chromosome, and the proportion of the male sex hormone testosterone does not decide alone about whether or not someone crossed as the first or Last to the finish line. Between 0.2 and 0.5 percent of the population not according to the old biblical Schema categorized as male or female but are biologically located therebetween, and can refer to a Third gender. The Federal constitutional court has recognized this Status in 2017. The international sports manage to the term "Athletes with Differences of Sex Development" (DSD). He includes, for example, the "Andro-genital syndrome" that can lead women to more male hormones, although the chromosome set is female. But there are also variants, in which a clear gender assignment is open.
As the IOC for the last time, before the Olympic Games in Atlanta in 1996, the number of controls had to perform turned out: In one of the 417 athletes gave way to the set of chromosomes from the usual XX-Schema. The rate was higher than in the normal population, in the you is 1:1000. This finding leads to a further question, which relates to the case of Semenya, but all athletes. Whether an Individual has an advantage in front of the other, may be due to the Training, the Size of the bone length. Also Hyperandrogenism, can be a natural advantage, as the feet of the floating world rekordlers Michael Phelps or the giant Fins Bolt stride length of Usain. World-class athletes are, on the average, often outside of the Norm. (Süddeutsche Zeitung)
Created: 02.05.2019, 10:07 PM