"A child's gender is determined by the X - and Y-chromosomes. An XX-set of would in ordinary to the child becomes a girl, while XY makes a boy. But in the Y-chromosome is an important gene, called SRY, which, in turn, affects another gene, called Sox 9, which are essential for on the testes begin to form."
"But how this occurs has been unknown, until now."
"– If you do not have an SRY gene in the Y chromosome so will the embryo to develop in a womb and you will become a girl. But we have not understood what it is doing to push forward the development of the testes, " says Andrew Sinclair, professor at the Murdoch Children's Research Institute of the australian Melbourne, where the research has been conducted."
"Influence the development"
"According to Sinclair, is about 90 per cent of the genome, the researchers up to now have referred to as junk dna or dark matter, because it does not contain any genes. But there are instead so-called controllers, which increases or reduces the activity of genes."
"– We knew roughly where we would look. But we are the first that managed to limit us to the small regions where the amplifiers are, says lead author Brittany Croft to the TT."
"the Sox 9 is a nyckelgen that must be turned on for the testes to begin forming, and the researchers found that the three controllers that sit on the outside of the SRY gene, in the debris region, is essential for that."
" We have patients who lack these controls. They have XY chromosomes, but has not developed testicles, but instead got a womb, " says Sinclair to the TT, and continues:"
" We also found patients who had extra copies of these small regulators, and they had XX chromosomes, but developed anyway testicles."
"It is with the help of the analysis of dna from these patients – caring for abnormalities in sexual development – which the researchers were able to find the regulators."
"the Scientists believe that these small regulators can cause a variety of disturbances in the development of genital areas."
"There are about a million of these regulators that affect the 22 000 genes. But researchers have only begun to understand how they work, and that they are so small and complex, they make difficult to study."
"– That these areas are out there. It is a bit like space exploration to look at it, that something so small can make such a big difference, " says Brittany Croft."
"the Study is published in the scientific journal Nature."
"Chromosomes are in the nucleus of a man. Chromosomes consist of dna and proteins. Humans have 46 chromosomes, divided into 22 pairs plus one pair of sex chromosomes. Known as the sex chromosomes are called X and Y, where women have two X chromosomes and men have one X chromosome and a Y chromosome."
"the Egg and the sperm have only one chromosome of each type, where the egg has an X chromosome and sperm with X - or Y-chromosome, which determines the sex of the embryo."