The airline industry is, so far, international climate obligations spared: no tax on kerosene, no political conditions imposed by international regulations such as the Kyoto Protocol and by 2020 the Paris climate agreement. But now the airlines will soon need billions of emission certificates from climate projects in order of their emissions-free buy.
to stabilize The International civil aviation organization (ICAO) has already decided a good ten years ago, starting in 2021 the CO2 emissions from international aviation at the same level from 2020. Due to technical progress, optimal flight routes and climate-friendly fuel alone, this goal is not reached. The ICAO has established, in the meantime, the CO2-compensation system Corsia for international air traffic. She wants to buy controversial old certificates that were generated prior to Paris, so according to the rules of the previous agreement, the Kyoto Protocol.
to make Bad for climate protection
An international group of researchers warns in the journal "Nature Climate Change" in front of it, these certificates will be unlimited under the new market regulations of the Paris agreement. The lead to any further reduction of the emissions, and offer no incentive for new investment in climate projects, the scientists explain. In a nutshell, the implementation of The climate targets of the Paris would be further slowed down. The previous pledge of the Contracting States are far away from the emission path that would be needed to slow climate change.
The Kyoto Protocol is in force since 2005, expires at the end of 2020 and will be replaced by the Paris climate agreement. The old certificates were created under the so-called CDM (Clean Development Mechanism), the parties to the Kyoto Protocol justified. Thus, the industrial countries had the opportunity, in developing countries more cost-effective than in their own country to meet, mainly through energy projects, a part of their reduction targets. For each reduced ton of CO2, a certificate is issued. Switzerland, too, has benefited. Without the certificate of purchase in a foreign country, you would not meet the reduction target for 2020: minus 20% compared with the greenhouse gas emissions from 1990–.
climate targets can now be conveniently achieved solely through cheap certificate purchase.
However, the development took a different path than expected. The offer of the certificates exceeded the demand by far. The consequence: The price fell to below a Euro for a certificate. Thus, no incentive for countries and companies to invest in climate-friendly technology is, because –without regulation –climate goals can only be through cheap certificate of purchase is reached.
The authors in "Nature" that today, the period between 2013 and 2020 by over 8000 climate projects– the larger part is water - and wind – power projects-about 4.65 billion of certificates in the offer are going out. The current demand amounts to only about 600 million. What is left is still sufficient to cover the forecast demand by the airline industry. The scientists expect the 1.6 to 3.7 billion certificates.
"Switzerland rejects a Transfer of these certificates in the Paris agreement," says Franz Perrez, head of the Swiss Delegation at the climate change conference in Madrid. The Transmission is one of the Key items on the agenda at this year's conference. "There's an Oversupply of certificates threatens. If the market is already oversaturated from the start, there are no incentives to generate additional emission reductions, the price will not be pressed in such a way that investments in new activities will pay off at all," says Perrez.
Brazil wants to benefit
most of The Contracting States represented the opinion of Switzerland. Only Brazil and India insist on the continuation of the old emission rights under the Treaty of Paris. Both States belong to in addition to China, the largest owners of such certificates. This could be useful in the future, because the Paris rules, in contrast to the Kyoto require that not only the industrialized countries but all countries must reduce their emissions. An agreement there are, however, only if consensus among all the States.
Problematic, only the Flooding of the market of issue, however, is not. The authors of "Nature" have determined in their study that most of the certificates originate from projects which violate the so-called additionality, which is considered in the Kyoto Protocol and the Paris agreement. This means that most of The climate projects, more than 80 percent, are not dependent on the revenues from the sale of the certificates, but will work in a market economy. The new demand for allowances by the carriers would, therefore, mostly not in climate-related projects would be invested, the need for start-up funding.
However, "The Transition of projects that were implemented under the Kyoto Protocol, should in principle be possible," says Axel Michaelowa from the independent Consultant Perspectives Climate Group, based in Zurich. For the experts for environmentally sustainable development in Emerging and developing countries would have to be checked whether they comply with the rules of the Treaty of Paris.
The ICAO have recognized that there are certificates of varying quality, it means in a working paper. Nevertheless, Because the compensation system Corsia is not subject to the rules of the Paris Convention, the ICAO is free to choose its own approach, said Michaelowa. "Should you allow the old certificates without restriction, as is the overhang with a significant Supply in the Corsia to be added to any System that would persist until well into the' 30s."
Created: 01.12.2019, 18:14 PM