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Therefore now requires a passport in the borderless EU

the constitutive act establishes the goal of an ”ever closer union among the european peoples”. The point with the EC, later the EU, is to remove differences and to break down barriers.

the EU project is given the impetus to realize the idea of no limits. Member state after member state signed in the 1990s, the so-called Schengen agreement on a passlöst area. After the hand starts gränsbommarna be mounted down.

More countries; Sweden, 2001. People who travel get used to not having to stop and show the pass of the Brenner, and Puttgarden, and for air travelers, it becomes normal to walk right into the terminal's cafés and shops as soon as you leave the plane.

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Along the exterior of the is there not the same enthusiasm for coordination on the inside. In order to be able to remove the inner gränshindren have the outer border is controlled consistent and coordinated, which requires mutual transparency and trust. The matter is sensitive. Police cooperation is even most law enforcement. The ”fortress Europe”, which met with fierce criticism in advance, that is to say, external border controls, there is more in theory than in practice. (The only corner where parts of ”the fortress” already exists is the EU's external border at Spain's north african exklaver Ceuta and Melilla.)

Even under the Schengen undramatic periods have border controls briefly occurred during such summits. But a couple of major terrorist attacks may trust to the openness to falter seriously. France closes borders in november 2015. At the same time, the large flyktingvågen from the Middle east, and just decides, Sweden, Germany, Austria, Denmark and Norway (not in EU but in Schengen) to introduce temporary border controls. All of these controls have since been – with the EUROPEAN commission's reluctant blessing.

Only now beginning a more coordinated and stronger external border controls to take shape. Deciding on a standing EU-bevakningsstyrka of 10,000. Common coast guard is being built up. Fingerprints are taken systematically on non-EU citizens at the external border.

When the current extension expires in november, Sweden has had border controls against Denmark and Germany in just four years. Since more than a year, the number of asylum seekers at lower levels than before the controls were introduced. Now justifying the government action that there is a ”threat to public order and internal security in Sweden”. It also refers to the lack of external border controls in the EU.

Hungarian högernationalistiska government begins already in september 2015 mount fence along its southern border. Later pops, in a sort of Black Peter-game, fences and barriers up between Austria and Slovenia, and between Slovenia and Croatia and between the Nordmakedonien and Greece. France built with british money, a four-meter-high wall of Calais to prevent migrants from getting to the channel tunnel.

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we See therefore the beginning of the end for the dream of the borderless Europe? It is not safe. There are underlying trends tell a different story:

• the Attitude to the gränslösheten is predominantly positive. Two-thirds of europeans see Schengen as one of the EU's main achievements. A similar proportion think that it has more advantages than disadvantages. Just over half believe that the Schengen improves the security of the union.

• the Workforce is becoming increasingly mobile. In recent years, the number of persons of working age who are looking for a job in another member state has increased dramatically and was 2017 up of 12.4 million. In addition, the 1.4 million people who live in one country and working in another (for example, Öresundspendlare).

• more and more european students are studying in other countries in the community. In 20 years, the number of cross-border students and apprentices quadrupled.

• Travel is growing in Europe. The number of air passengers between the EU countries has tripled in 25 years, and has now reached a billion. The number of intra-EU tourists has increased by 25 per cent since 2009.

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