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The year's 10 biggest scientific breakthroughs

A single cell becomes a body. The adult body heals after an injury. There are a few of life's miracles that the scientists now can follow in exquisite detail t

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The year's 10 biggest scientific breakthroughs

A single cell becomes a body. The adult body heals after an injury. There are a few of life's miracles that the scientists now can follow in exquisite detail through the reading of the genetic material inside the individual cells.

”A child is born” with images of master photographer Lennart Nilsson is one of the world's best-selling photography books. It depicts the way from a fertilized egg to a newborn baby made up of trillions of cells.

Now there is a new way to capture life's development. The images are based on technologies that the journal Science, place on top of their list of science's most important breakthrough in the past year.

"I think that it eventually leads to a nobel Prize," says Michael Vanlandewijck, a biologist at the Karolinska institute.

a few years Ago, researchers have been able to read the genetic information in the form of rna, a kind of working files of the dna in individual cells. Michael Vanlandewijck use the method to study the blood - brain barrier.

Other researchers are focusing on the embryos. Analyses of thousands of individual cells, showing how they turn off and on different genes. The activity makes so that the new cells are formed at exactly the right time, in the right place and in a biological interaction with a galaxy of cellgrannar which together constitute an organism. Computing and hereditary genändringar makes it possible to follow cell strains, and see how they form the different tissues and organs.

The crucial technology is called ”single cell rna-sequencing”. In the years, it has been used to identify the early development of the zebrafish, frogs, and other vertebrates.

A study of salamanderarten axolotl has brought new knowledge about its unique läkkött. If the salamander loses a leg, it a new in a few months. It is made by cells in the benstumpen program on to the stem cells that form new bone.

both ethical and technical reasons is all research so far on the embryos of animals other than humans. But several research groups are studying human cells. In Europe, 60 businesses and almost as many scientific institutions are joining forces to map the processes in the individual cells that cause cancer, diabetes, and other diseases.

In the long run can lead to new treatments – and to ever more detailed images of the cells dance in a living body. The photographer Lennart Nilsson, who passed away last year, would surely have appreciated the new technology.

the Impact tore a crater with a diameter of three miles and sent shock waves through the whole of the Arctic. Despite the fact that the crater area is large enough to accommodate the whole of Paris has until recently been unknown.

the Researchers found the crash site in a kilometertjockt blanket of ice with the help of airborne radar. They believe that the crater was formed less than 100,000 years ago. Possibly this is the only 13 000 years old. In this case, is the asteroid, a possible explanation for the fact that the world suffered a thousand years of vargavinter at the end of the last ice age.

A 2.5 centimeters long benflisa testify to two different människoformer became parents to a girl. Photo: Ian.R.Cartwright

A benflisa from a girl born in the current Russia more than 50 000 years ago, gives an intriguing answer: Her parents belonged to was his människoform.

the Neanderthals lived at the same time as the so-called denisovamänniskorna, researchers found the remains in the cave Denisova in central asia. Previous research has shown that they sometimes had children with each other. A 2.5 cm long benflisa from the cave come from such a child, a girl who died in his teens. A chromosome analysis shows that her mother was a neanderthal, while his father was denisovamänniska.

the Tiny liquid droplets takes care of the important transport in the cells of the body. But it happens that the traffic logs and drops flowing together to the sluggish jelly, for example, when the neurodegenerative disease ALS.

In april reported several research groups that they have found the way to resolve the congestion, which can lead to new treatments.

The suspected mass murderer Joseph James DeAngelo was apprehended thanks to a database with the genetic information for family history. Photo: Paul Kitagaki Jr./AP

In april, police in California previously the police Joseph James DeAngelo, 72, suspected of rapes and a dozen murders for more than thirty years ago. They managed to track him down with the help of a genetic free service on the web.

More than 15 million people in the world have bought commercial genetic testing. Testföretagen handle the results confidentially, but who want to maximize their opportunities to find relatives can upload their data in a database, which has become a new resource for police officers in efforts to investigate serious crimes.

Dickinsonia may have been a precursor to a teeming wildlife. Photo: Ilya Bobrovskiy/AP

The enigmatic creature Dickinsonia resembled a ribbed bath mat and lived in the sea for more than half a billion years ago. Was it a fungus, an animal, or something else entirely?

Despite fossilens record age did researchers in Australia an attempt to answer the question with the chemical analyses. They found the molecules related to cholesterol, which confirms that Dickinsonia was an animal, according to the researchers. Possibly it was a precursor to a myriad of djurformer which later developed in the so-called cambrian explosion.

twenty years ago, the american researchers said that it is possible to switch off specific genes with pieces of double-stranded rna. They were awarded with the Nobel prize in medicine for the discovery.

After many difficulties, the discovery led to a medical treatment. In the year approved the first drug based on the method, called rna interference, in both the united states and the EUROPEAN union. The drug silences a gene which is located behind the hereditary and rare Skelleftesjukan. More drugs in the class are expected, but they will probably be expensive.

the Dna spiral is one of the countless molecules that have received their form known thanks to the x-ray crystallography. However, the method requires that the substance forms a crystal as big as a grain of sand. Sometimes it is impossible.

Now researchers have developed a method which requires only a billionth as large crystal, and the analysis takes just a few minutes.

Astrophysicists have for the first time tracked the neutrinos that hit the earth to a specific source in another galaxy. A network of detectors spread out in a cubic kilometer of ice near the south pole sign rare traces of neutrinos in the form of glimmers of hope. In september 2017, gave the plant, known as Icecube, a good idea of which direction a neutrino came from.

this summer, scientists connect neutrinon to a highly radiant so-called blazar in the heart of a distant galaxy. It shows that the neutrinos acts as a new type of messenger about events in the cosmos.

the Time when sexual harassment in the academic world to systematically silenced may be over. After that a report showed that more than half of all female academic staff have been subject to sexual harassment, it has begun to happen.

Prominent researchers have left the services after they are found guilty of sexual harassment. Livstidsutmärkelser can be withdrawn, and the universities have to tell you for certain organizations, if someone who received funds from them is being investigated for sexual harassment. But not all organizations require this.

He Jiankui has received harsh criticism for his claims that he created the world's first genetically modified babies. Photo: Mark Schiefelbein/AP

Fires, heat waves and hurricanes. 2018 was the year when climate change became tangible for many. But in spite of numerous reports on climate change impacts, it is according to the Science clear that there is a political unwillingness to take action.

Among this year's scientific breakdown is also mentioned that the chinese researcher He Jiankus made several ethical breaches in his experiments to create the world's first genetically modified babies.

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