By the year 2045, Sweden should have no net emissions of greenhouse gases, and for it to have negative emissions according to the climate objectives. The objectives are possible to achieve but the existing decisions and actions is not enough, they must both be strengthened and complemented, according to the environmental protection agency.
" The important message is that this goes, we can fix it. The technical conditions are met, or are at least around the corner, but it requires political leadership and the policy instruments if we are to be able to use these advances in technology, " says Stefan Nyström, head of klimatavdelningen at the environmental protection agency.
as a basis for the climate action plan that the government should take forward during the year.
According to the calculations is sufficient current measures are only half-way. When it comes to the total emissions within the country's borders, so must the year 2045 to be at least 85 per cent lower than in 1990, according to the objectives. The instruments are decided in the day is enough less than halfway, they are deemed to result in a reduction of between 34 and 41 percent during the period.
the Three key areas singled out as crucial for reducing emissions.
• the Transport system must be, to become more efficient and switch to renewable fuels.
• the Industry's emissions must be reduced to near zero by new technology, energy efficiency and replacement of fossil fuels.
• Conditions to separate, capture and store carbon dioxide need to be developed to make it possible to achieve negative emissions and to reduce emissions from industry emissions.
– The most important thing now is that we get to grips with the emissions from primary production and transport. If we are unable to manufacture steel and cement without excessive emissions it will be difficult because they, in turn, is the basis that we should get rid of the emissions. It is difficult to build the foundations of wood to wind energy, " says Stefan Nyström.
is necessary. Electricity consumption will increase and renewable electricity is a precondition for access to both fossil-fuel-free industry and transport. They are Sweden's largest utsläppsområden, together they account for two-thirds of the Swedish emissions of greenhouse gases.
– At the transport side it is to support the introduction of electric cars and building charging infrastructure. The industry expects that already in 2023 so will half of the cars sold have the cord. It is perhaps about two hundred thousand cars, then it is that we have a built-laddstruktur.
– For the heavy traffic, we may choose to install elvägar, you have made calculations that show that one can reduce emissions from heavy duty transport by 80% if you elektrifierar 10 per cent of the roads.
Industrial emissions account for one-third of domestic emissions, the greater part of these, four-fifths or 80 per cent, comes from the utilities. It's about a few sources, mainly from the iron and steel industry, the cement industry and refineries.
in order to bring down emissions. A project where the government and companies cooperate to a technology, where hydrogen gas is used in order to get to the fossil-fuel-free iron and steel production.
the Technologies to separate, capture and store carbon dioxide, so-called CCS-technology, is under investigation central to get the emissions from, for example, the cement industry and to achieve the objective of nettonollutsläpp to 2045.
"Because we have such large emissions from the process industry where there is lack of fossil-fuel-free option, we must have the technology to capture carbon dioxide and it is also necessary to create negative emissions," says Stefan Nyström.
" But there is nothing that happens by itself, it requires political decisions and political leadership.
Overall, the report concludes that the technical conditions for a radical transformation is good. It points out that the solutions evolve in a rapid pace and the confederation of Swedish enterprise has shown a willingness to set about, among other things, by developing roadmaps towards a low emissions under the zero carbon Sweden.
" It is incredibly important that we do this, then can other countries take after. If we show the way to carbon free steel it will be a role model. We can show that it is possible to combine fossilfrihet with economic development.