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Unaccompanied minors at the crossroads: in Italy the nightmare of becoming adults invisible

the ROME - The UN agencies for migrants and the children - UNHCR, UNICEF and IOM - commissioned to the Fondazione ISMU research, related of photos, that conta

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Unaccompanied minors at the crossroads: in Italy the nightmare of becoming adults invisible
the ROME - The UN agencies for migrants and the children - UNHCR, UNICEF and IOM - commissioned to the Fondazione ISMU research, related of photos, that contains testimonies of the children of migrants, not accompanied with in-depth coverage in the regions of Lombardia, Lazio and Sicilia. The result is disheartening: is the comment on the report "At a crossroads" by Emanuela Bonini, head of research for ISMU. It's an issue that concerns the Gambia, Egypt, Albania, the first nationality of origin of girls and boys, most have between 15 and 17 years. The research shows that, despite a law advanced, it is inadequate in its application, especially in the transition to adulthood.

with No face and identity. Between 2014 and 2018, have arrived in Italy more than 70 thousand unaccompanied foreign minors (MSNA), of which 90% are between 15 and 17 years old. The large presence of foreign children only (to June 2019 were 7.272), and the increasing number of neomaggiorenni unaccompanied (about 60,000 in the last five years), in Italy, lead to the need for a better understanding of the measures and the possibilities of protection and social inclusion of this population. Almost all of the UMMS respondents in the fork (185 in total), the 83,4% of them are between 16 and 17 years old. Driven by conflict, poverty, disaster, or in search of opportunity. During the trip many of them have faced dangers, detention, violence, exploitation and abuse. The nationality prevalent are the Gambia, Egypt and Albania, to follow – between 12 and 15 interviews At a crossroads – Guinea, Mali, and Nigeria. 1/4 of the respondents of the Report, ISMU has a residence permit for minor age. Holders of international protection are 17 (10 refugees and 7 with subsidiary protection), 28 were holders of humanitarian protection, 17 have a permit for special cases and another 22 have applied for asylum.

Age and ghosts. to read the data At a fork in the road, it is obvious that the artificiality of distinguishing the young people, these young people, in particular, between ‘minors’ and ‘majors’: the law, in fact, seems not to take account of the character of the case of becoming adults, of the cultural and social differences that affect this process, as well as the vulnerability to which this category of migrants is exposed. For example, immediate, account must be taken of the fact that Italy, the EU level is perhaps the Country most advanced in terms of rights guaranteed to UMMS:
1 .Not respingibilità;
2 . Not espellibilità;
3 . The right to protection;
4 . Unconditional acceptance (Preference for the foster family);
5 . The social rights recognized to all children (school, health, ...),
6 . Rights of a procedural nature in the security request.
In the facts, however, as soon as the child becomes an adult, all these principles are forfeited, and the newly 18-year-old unaccompanied becomes a ghost.

The limits of concrete for the lack of autonomy. In the end, the rules do not only would like to cut with the axe, the difference between the major and minor age, but does not seem to take into not even realize the difficulty that the MSNA live once age:
1 . At the regulatory level, the procedures for the obtainment of the documents these guys are slow and complex, combined with bureaucratic obstacles are almost inevitable.
2 . In fact, the space of time that the MSNA have at the age of their arrival (16-17 years) is too limited because to know the necessary tools for their path to independence and inclusion.
3 . Access to information and guidance for regulatory, training and job placement, are greatly reduced.
4 . As to employment, the difficulties of obtaining a contract regular job affects every other aspect.
5 . Finally, but perhaps that is the discriminant is greater, racism, and also for the labour market and of the house, represents an obstacle for the UMMS and neomaggiorenni.
In order to create reports and regulations and concrete actions for these guys, then, do not take into account some crucial variables: the trauma experienced in their Country of origin or during the journey are difficult to overcome and make it more complex the path of inclusion; the violence, including that of gender, experienced in particular by the girls even when they are not victims of trafficking, has a strong influence on the process of their transition to adult life.

“our only chance is awareness”. “The law 47 of 2017 - says Emanuela Bonini, coordinator of the research ISMU - they have not yet found full implementation. The first step would be to implement it. The second, lies in the fact that the protection of the law and the system of reception, shall forfeit to the age of 18 years: the act 47 does not solve the problem. Gives space to the guardian voluntary and other forms of protection such as the continuation of administrative (support up to 21 years), but all of the boys who do not avail of this opportunity, and remain alone, outside the community, from the reception centres, from any structure. The only chance is to quickly find a regular job that can also ensure a permit to stay (when they do not have international protection).

the goal of The research. is to understand the conditions of MSNA from their point of view, through interviews, from which emerge the needs, sufferings, and expectations. These guys want to study, find a job, many hoping to return to their Country to make what they have learned here. The goal of the UN was to raise awareness among Government, local authorities and public opinion on the plight of these guys that does not change the age of 18 years, but their life can become dramatic. And this must be said and understood. The dissemination of a research like this is important to understand the situation of those who are not Italian, but a migrant in Italy”.

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