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Right to study: the girls of the maasai and Lucrezia borgia, the conquest of the future
NAIROBI. Have 13 years Risper and Gladys, and sisters, and because daughters of the same father, a maasai christian, double, with wife and offspring, plenty, 17 direct descendants. Is the rural Kenya, southwest of Nairobi, in Kajado the west, the central plateau over the Ngong. The sisters of the maasai attending school Osopoko, respectively, the seventh and sixth grade, every morning, go down to walk away from the two huts of sheet metal built around the enclosure of the animals, and in twenty minutes they are in class.

The story and the "version" of the sisters Ndilai revolves around the school, and to the right to a quality education. The Countries of the Un, the Organization of the United Nations, between the so-called Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) for 2030, have been identified as Goal 4.

The version of Risper and Gladys . The stories of the tredicenni Maasai - told by the project "The female of the same" (the ngo World Friends and CrescereInsieme) - may well represent the difficulties of addressing this objective which seems to us so obvious.

Tells Risper: "My father told me that when I was born it came to someone who gave me a ring and wanted to marry me. I would have married at the age of my 10 years. When I grew up I have circumcised even if I didn't want to, but my father has decided to do it". (Means the practice of female genital mutilation. In the target 3 of the Target on gender equality is written for 2030: "to Eliminate all abusive practices such as arranged marriage, the phenomenon of child brides and female genital mutilation", ndr). Continue Risper: "When they finished the circoncisone that man came and brought a large sheep for macellarla. Then I went back with my sister from the village chief of the Maasai, and I told him that my father wanted to give me in marriage, and not send me to school. The head of the village came to the house and my father then decided to let me continue at school, but he still believes that education is not aid".

Tells Gladys: "I was 5 years old, and my father wanted to circoncidermi (female genital mutilation, ed.). For him we had work to do and think, and cattle, and he did not want to go to school. He wanted to circumcise me and my sister, and to give us husbands. So the boss came to our house and my father then consented to send us to school even if the school continued to say that the school will ever give you something".

I get married in 10 years and go to school. So they see it from rural Kenya Risper and Gladys. And both dream, without esserselo never said to each other, to become pilots. That plane that passes over their huts on the route to the Wilson airport in Nairobi.

The version of Lucrezia . Lucrezia lives in the province of Alessandria, he is sixteen years old and attended the high school musical, that she is the "haven", after suffering harassment and bullying in secondary school. Already then, in order to play, he had chosen an instrument unusual for a woman (even if, in truth, there are famous soloist): the trumpet. The true secret, he confesses Lucrezia - is that "playing the trumpet, that stamp, it makes me feel better, it was immediately so, is my refuge, the time when free feelings, a cure when I'm sick. The medium was very difficult and it was the trumpet to help me and to be able to believe in myself. Already at elementary school as to the averages, there were of the types that would make fun of me, I had targeted. I hit for my physical appearance, due to my shyness. It was hell, I locked more and more, and only the music helped me".

Lucrezia found in the liceo musicale his "paradise", where nothing will harm you, nor judge you. Own iI of Saluzzo, Plana music high school of Alexandria where he lands, together with 13 other schools in the province, the project "the female of the same". It speaks precisely of gender equality and quality education, the fifth and the fourth of the sustainable development Goals 2030.

Look at the data . According to the report international, 15 million girls in preschool age in the world will never have the opportunity to learn to read or write in primary school. The boys are 10 million. The UN/Unesco (United Nations Organization for Education, Science and Culture) on education tells us that 617 million children and adolescents do not meet the minimum standards of proficiency in reading and mathematics, and child/adolescent out of five between 6 and 17 years do not attend school. Are 750 million illiterate adults, two thirds of whom are women.

The Oecd, the Organization for economic cooperation and development, reports that Italy spends on education and the university for about 3.6% of Gdp, almost a point and a half less than the average of Oecd countries, which is equal to 5%.

The case in Kenya . The expenditure in education in Kenya is around 5.3% of gross domestic Product in 2005 but came to 7.4 approximately. Since 2003, the primary school is free and the classrooms are overcrowded. It is easy to see three little kids for the tour, with an obvious sense of frustration of the teachers of the public schools, as reported recently, a reporter for the BBC in the days of September in which on the outskirts of Nairobi had collapsed an elementary school just on the way to Ngong (the area where you live, Risper and Gladys), resulting in the death of seven children and many injured. The effect of the overcrowding was a boom of private schools: from 7.742 in 2014 to 16.594 of this year.

school leavers . In western Countries there is another phenomenon: the abandonment of the school of poor students. Nine of the ten children of wealthy families finish high school, compared with 7.5 of those coming from poor families. In recent years, efforts have been made to reduce drop outs in Italy: from 19% in 2009 we are down to 14% in 2017. Even if Eurostat reports that from 2017 to 2018, the share grows from 14% to 14.5%. If in the centre-north we are close to 10%, and in the south the proportion of young people who abandon studies is closer to 20%.

Women in school . Women also seem to most scholars. Returns the Istat in Italy, 27.9% of young people 30-34enni has a title tertiary and has reached the national target envisaged by Europe 2020 (26-27%), although with important regional differences and gender. For women, the share of 30-34enni graduates is 34%, while for men, it is 21.7%.

The latest survey Oecd-Pisa 2018, which assesses the skills of 15-year-olds with respect to reading, mathematics and science puts the spotlight of the differences males-females. For Italy, the score in reading was 476, as against 487 of the Oecd average and, always in Italy, the girls exceed the boys of 25 points; in the North-East and in the South Islands you will come to a gap of 30 and 35 points. The minimum level of skills is for girls of 28%, for the machi of 19%. But the girls much more than boys, do not see their future work, we believe less.

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