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Juvenile justice, The criminal system works: this is the Fifth Report of Antigone on the guys in prison:
the ROME - The relationship to Heal the cherry trees takes its cue from a verse of the song of Fabrizio De André "A doctor" and forms the backbone of the V° Rapporto Antigone on Correctional Institutions for Minors (IPM). In a nutshell: they decrease both the crimes that the inmates; irrelevant to the prescription; the guys in the IPM are mainly Italian; satisfying the system of the communities. Antigone stresses, however, the growth in reports of minors for mafia association; the interpretation is too restrictive of the reform of the law of minors, 2018; and calls for greater attention to the needs of dialogue and life with the outside, for the guys inside.

very little girls. , The young inmates are in the Community Amigò, which welcomes children subject to alternative measures to detention, unaccompanied children and minors subject to measures civil. Are 375 children and young adults in Italy, for most italians (70% of the total), very few girls (6.1%). In short, "overall, the juvenile prison system works in Italy": is the comment of the Gem Cabinet, the head of the Department of Juvenile Justice and the Community (DGMC).

The "charm" of the clan in the mafia. To today, says the Association Antigone, are 375 children and young adults present in the Ipm. 6.1% is made up of girls. At 15 January, the children and young adult prisoners were distributed in 17 institutions with characteristics and dimensions different from each other: the one with the most visitors was that of Nisida, with 45 inmates, while on the same date in Caltanissetta there were only 3. Throughout Italy, that day, were held 23 girls, 12 of which are in Pontremoli (which is the only IPM only female in Italy). Fall the killings of almost 50%, and even thefts, and robberies by about 15%. Between 2014 and 2018, with the reports of the police for crimes committed by minors decreased by 8.3%, from over 33.300 in 2014 30,600 in 2018. Fall the intentional homicides (-46,6%) and negligence (eur 45.4%), kidnapping (-17,2%), theft (-14,03%), robberies (3.9 percent) and criminal association (- 82,5%). Concerned about the growth, from 2014, of children reported for association with the mafia (+93,8% were 49% in 2014 and 95% in 2018).

70% of the young defendants are italians. accused juvenile persons are to 70% Italian and 30% are foreigners. Over 84% are males and less than 16% are females (both for italians and foreigners). 30.5% of the accused are boys between 14 and 15 years of age, 69.5% have 16 or 17. The girls booked with an age between 14 and 15 years (40% of the total) are more than boys; the accused with an age between 16 and 17 years of age (60%) are less.

criminal justice, the Italian young people is the best d’ Europe . In Italy, the guys are very listened in the rules that govern the incarceration, and are less than in other european Countries. Portugal is the State that has the highest age for the imputability. In Europe, the age from which it is attributable ranges between 12 years in the Netherlands and Ireland, and 16 in Portugal. In Sweden, the Czech Republic, Finland and Denmark was criminally responsible at the age of 15. In all other countries, including Italy, 14 years. The exception of Poland and France, where he becomes criminally liable at the age of 13. With respect to its neighbors, Italy has recourse to detention in a residual and dwindling the boys held.

Incarcerated in pre-trial detention. Stories difficult leading up to the violence of the young inmates, and often do not have a safe place to live freely: this is one of the reasons for which 72% of the boys entered in IPM are in pre-trial detention. The average length of stay is just over three months. The duration of the punishment of the boys in IPM is generally short: an average of 102 days in 2019.

children and young people are only 7.2% of the total . The young are very few. Remains of the majority the group of boys that are 18, 19 or 20 years, but many are also those that have 16 or 17 years old. On average, foreigners appear to be slightly younger of the italians. The boys, aged between 14 and 15 years are 7.2%; those between 21 and 25 years old (who have committed the crime by juveniles, the so-called young adults) are 15.5%; 35.2% of them are between 16 and 17 years of age and the remaining 42,1% between 18 and 20 years old. 17% of children detained has committed a criminal offence against the person.

Types of offences. offences against the person, the more serious concern, only 17% of those who enter the IPM. 62% had committed offences against property. The IPM, then, functions primarily as a tool to affect the way the treatment of each boy. The use of this tool it is then more frequent and prolonged for those who lack an adequate family structure and territorial behind.

The role of the community. most of The kids comes in the IPM from the host community. And to the community is directed almost half of the people that come out. Only 10.3% of the boys comes out of the IPM, because it has finished scontarvi its worth. 11’8% comes out to be transferred to facilities for adults, because it exceeded the age limit to stay in the IPM, by his own will (after 25 years), or by a refractoriness to the internal life of the institute. On the other hand, if to January 15, 2020 the guys in the IPM were 375, the same day the boys in the community were 1.104.

The community of welcome is axis . The 1.104 guys are included in the system of the host community, which hosts about 20,000 children, of whom, therefore, those which came from the penalty area are a minority. Their presence has almost doubled in the last 10 years. These numbers have made of the system of the community a-axis-course of juvenile justice in italy. The majority of the guys goes to a community, in a precautionary measure, a smaller group comes from the IPM, about 20% is in community, in the context of a project put to the test.

“Many signs of improvement ”. First things first - declare the Gem Cabinet, the Head of the DGMC - I would like to note that, in the face of a capacity of 529 beds available, the prison system, the juvenile does not present problems of overcrowding and that it is possible to respect the principle of territoriality. The entry into force of the legislative Decree of October 2, 2018, then, finally with our Country of a sort on the execution of juvenile criminal. The positive effects, " he added, Cabinet - have produced positive effects in the improvement of the projects of recovery and of life imprisonment, and in the response of all actors in the juvenile Justice and the community. - visits, prolonged
- reorganized the sections of detention
- surveillance
- interviews with family members and telephone communications

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