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Disparities: a teenage girl on the 3 in the poorest households in the world have never gone to school
the ROME – Still in the world today, almost a teenage girl on the 3 in the poorest households in the world have never gone to school. According to the new UNICEF study, "Addressing the learning crisis: an urgent need to better finance the education for the poorest children" - made of the 42 countries with available data, among which the Italy - 44% of girls and 34% of the boys belonging to the 20% of the poorest households have never attended or have abandoned primary school. The analysis was launched on the occasion of the meeting of the Ministers of Education at the World forum on Education, and in view of the annual meeting of the World Economic Forum.

The Countries object of the research. in the countries under analysis, the funds for the education of children of 20% of the richest households are about twice as destined to the children of the 20% of poorest families. Barbados, Denmark, Ireland, Norway and Sweden are the only countries in the research that evenly distribute the funds for education between the poorest and more rich and more poor. “In Italy - said Francesco Samengo, president of UNICEF Italy - less than 20% of public resources for education are intended for children from the poorest families and more than 20% to the children of the richest families. The educational poverty affects the entire lives of children and youth, depriving them of opportunities; and investing in the quality of education means tackling the causes of poverty at the root, with enormous benefits for the whole Country system”.

highest disparities in spending on education. , More in general, in the 19 high-income countries, with 18.6% of the resources for education is allocated 20% of the children of the poorest families, while 21.7% is intended for the children of the wealthiest families; in 8 low-income countries only 10.3% of the resources devoted to education is allocated 20% of the poorest children, while most of the 37.9 percent of those of the richest families. The highest disparities in educational expenditure have been found in 10 countries in Africa (Guinea, Central african Republic, Senegal, Cameroon, Benin, Niger, Rwanda, Ghana, Togo, and Tunisia), where the funds allocated to the children in the most affluent are 4 times higher than those for the poorest children. In Guinea and the Central african Republic – the countries with the highest rate of children who do not go to school – children in the richest benefit, respectively, from 9 a.m. to 6 times more public funds on education than the poorest children.

All the reasons of inequality. The study underscores considerable differences in the distribution of public expenditure for education. Funds are limited and unevenly distributed causing very numerous classes, teachers poorly trained, lack of school materials and poor infrastructure. All this has a negative impact on attendance, enrolment and learning. In addition, poverty, discrimination due to gender, disability, ethnic origin or language of instruction, physical distance from schools and poor infrastructure are additional obstacles that continue to prevent access to a quality education to the poorest children. The exclusion at each step of the path to school perpetuates poverty and is one of the key factors of the crisis of education at the global level. The lack of resources available for the poorest children increases the crisis, because the schools cannot ensure a quality education to their students. According to the World Bank, more than half of the children who live in countries of low and middle income do not know how to read or understand a simple story by the end of elementary school.

The study suggests some guidelines to the governments.
- In the plan of distribution of national resources, the funds need to be allocated in such a way that the children of the 20% of the poorest households benefit from at least 20% of the funds for education;
- public funds should give priority to the early years of education – where children from the poorest families are most represented – and gradually increase the distribution (of funds) to subsequent years, when the cover for the first few years of education has approached the universal level.
- Ensure at least 1 year of pre-school education universal for every child. Preschool education is the foundation on which the rest of the school. Children who have completed pre-primary education learn better, are more likely to go to school and to better contribute to the economies of their countries and society as adults. Allocate at least 10% of national budgets for education will help to achieve universal access to quality education.

The project "Lost in education" UNICEF. In Italy, the orgqnizzazione humanitarian carry on with the project ‘Lost in Education’ aimed to 4,500 boys and girls, 900 families, 600 teachers and 255 social actors to fight against poverty, educational child. The project, supported by the Children as part of the Fund for combating poverty education of the juvenile, which sees UNICEF Italy as lead partner, in partnership with Arciragazzi (National, Sicily, Liguria, Lazio, Lombardy, Apulia) and with ARCI Liguria, is made of 20 secondary schools of first and second degree (13 Comprehensive schools and 7 high Schools) in 7 Italian regions (Lazio, Lombardy, Sicily, Puglia, Liguria, Sardinia, Friuli-Venezia Giulia) and has the goal of making these guys and girls, together with their parents and teachers, aware of the change that can work in society as they become “selection” between schools and other actors in the educational community.

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