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Glaucoma check-up of the view from 40 years to diagnose it in time
YOU LIVE LONGER, but you see less and less good. To ’steal’ the view of the elderly is often the glaucoma currently is the second leading cause of blindness in the world after cataract. "In Italy there suffer from about a million and 200 thousand persons, but one out of two still doesn't know with the risk of noticing it only when it is too late," explains Luciano Quaranta , professor of ophthalmology at the University of Pavia. "Glaucoma is, in fact, is regarded as the 'silent thief' because the patient is in the early stages does not feel any symptom, and then turns to the ophthalmologist only when the visual damage is already blown". For this - already starting from 40 years - it is important to do the check up to the view to intercept in time the signs of the disease. Remember it is also the World Glaucoma Association on the occasion of the world Week of glaucoma - from 8 to 14 march - launches the campaign “Get tested for glaucoma”, that is, “Do a check for glaucoma”. How to make the diagnosis But how to make the diagnosis? "For the primary open-angle glaucoma, which affects 80% of the cases, the diagnosis is executed during the eye examination with a careful examination of the papilla, i.e. the part of intraocular optic nerve. In this way, it is possible to detect the damage caused by the glaucoma is already in place," explains Stephen Best , director of the eye Clinic of the Policlinico di Monza, University of Milan-Bicocca and president of the Italian Association for the Study of Glaucoma (Aisg). Not only the pressure of the eye, And then there is the evaluation of the pressure of the eye, which represents the most important risk factor for the onset of glaucoma. "It is good to emphasize, however, that a high value is not always a sign of the presence of the disease. In fact, we know that a good 25% of the subjects suffering from open-angle glaucoma, never has the pressure in the eye above the norm," explains Best. And, in fact, there are other factors that predispose to glaucoma such as familiarity, age (40 years old), myopia (nearsightedness), low blood pressure and cardiovascular disease. Therapies, the measurement of The pressure values, however, it is also crucial to the choices on how to manage the disease, because, even if there is no permanent cure, treatments are always directed at lowering the eye pressure. This is eyedrops that make use of both molecules that increase the outflow of aqueous humor (analogs of prostaglandins and prostanoids), and molecules that reduce the production of aqueous humor (beta blockers, alpha agonists, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors). Unfortunately, unlike other fields of ophthalmology and swarming of new molecules, the pharmacology of the glaucoma stopped twenty years ago. But there is nothing new in the inbox: "In the short - anticipates the Best - may be available also in Italy of the new therapies already approved in the United States and which act as stimulators of the ways of outflow of aqueous humor such as nitric oxide in association with a derivative of prostaglandins and inhibitors of Rho-kinase, which would allow to obtain a reduction of the ocular pressure in the order of 25% compared to baseline values, facilitating the outflow of aqueous humor". Neuroprotection in glaucoma another important change is the one that provides support for the classic treatment ipotonizzante with molecules neuroprotective seen that glaucoma is a neurodegenerative disease the eye which has much in common with the neurodegenerative disorders of the central nervous system such as Alzheimer's or Parkinson's. "The more molecules notes - adds the president-Aisg - have been studied, especially in Italy, as the citicolina and coenzyme Q10, both available in the form of eyedrops that syrup, and oral tablets". Knowing how to instill the eye drops According to a study the Archives of Ophthalmology, only a patient with glaucoma, three manage to drop the drops in the eye. In other cases, they end up on the cheeks. Happens because instill properly eye drops is not such a simple thing especially for the elderly. “The correct instillation of eye drops, reaffirms the Forty – is of paramount importance for patients glaucomatosi because only in this way it is possible to control the disease. The most important rules to observe are: wash your hands first, to avoid the contact of the spout of the bottle with the eye and with the lashes, do not lend nor borrow in the eye and keep it away from the light”. To explain step by step how to put the drops in the eye, the Observatory for the Health of the View, has made a video instructional in which an ophthalmologist explains the rules to follow before, during, and after the instillation, while a patient performs the correct procedure. The video is visible on the site where it is possible to also download free of charge the next numbers of the ‘Handouts glaucoma’ in which are discussed themes such as the difficulty of reading on the computer, and tips for overcoming them (which character to choose and what size; how to adjust the contrast, etc.), advice on how to ‘equip’ the home to prevent falls and how to ride safely with glaucoma. The importance of physical activity, constant physical activity can decrease the risk of developing glaucoma. According to the American Heart Association, we should do 10 thousand steps per day, of which at least 3 thousand consecutive and increasing 10 minutes per day physical activity, you can achieve a 25% reduction in the risk of glaucoma. Why? "To move is to increase the oxygenation of the retina and its cells, making them stronger," explains Luciano Quaranta, professor of ophthalmology at the University of Pavia. "In addition, the physical activity counteracts the formation of free radicals in the central nervous system, of which the eye is part of it."

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