When comparing today's youth with the generation that has returned to the 20 before the crisis in 2008 rocked the world, two aspects call attention powerfully: the casualisation of employment and the indentation of the population. The first translates into a devaluation-wage lived between 2008 and 2016 for almost all workers, but are concentrated in age groups more low: the average wage of those under the age of 20 suffered a decline of 28%; the drop for the 20 to 24 was 15%; and 9% for the 25 to 29, according to the Annual Survey of Wage Structure.MORE INFORMATION on Political against ‘millennials’ The lost generation Poverty-university (Pre -) stand for A generation marked
The second major structural change is the thinning of the new generation: the 4.8 million spaniards aged 20 to 29, the INE said that there were at the beginning of the year represent a fall of almost 30% compared to 6.7 that he had in 2005. A stunning comedown demographic.
"are accentuated trends precarizadoras installed for a while now. A young man consolidates his / her life on two pillars: working conditions and access to housing. And both the temporality as the rent prices have gotten worse these years," says Carlos Gutierrez, secretary of Youth of the CC OO union, which has just released #Generaciónmóvil, an x-ray of the youth, whose main conclusion is that the precarity "is not defined already as an early stage or a transitional" but "that increasingly is spreading like an oil stain that constitutes a new normal in the labor market."
The precariousness of the youth in the work can be analyzed from two major legs: the temporality and the rotation from one post to another. While the season fell in the last decade to the group of workers, this has become rising for minors under the age of 29 and is already higher than before the crisis. But the big winner in the labor practices of the twentysomethings is the part time contract, for the most part junk. During the crisis, job destruction affected mostly full-time jobs. The consequence is that the contracts by the hour for those under 29 years of age increased from 15% to 27%, according to the calculated CC OO with data from the EPA.
in Front of so much negativity, professor of Sociology, Luis Garrido is much more optimistic. According to his studies, the rates of temporary employment have remained remarkably stable in each age group in previous generations. And you don't see any reason why this will change in the future. Garrido avoids any discourse that carries the tagline of "the lost generation". "Generation lost nothing. On the contrary!", protest. He identifies two factors that place the youth of today in a situation much more favourable than that of their predecessors: the return in mass to the studies —especially the girls— that they gave after the shock of the crisis and less competition for the demographic decline.Severino Edjang, in the centre of Mostoles. Jaime Villanueva, THE COUNTRY
The bad prospects of finding employment plunged dramatically in the early school leavers: in 2006, the number of males 16 to 24 years old workers came to match it with the students. This year, 63% of the boys and girls of that age are dedicated just to the books, compared to 15% of those who only work. "Many young people say they are desperate for the poor perspectives. But they have advantages huge. Among other, the be very few. There is no benefit comparable to this", concludes Garrido, who has decades of scrutinizing the data of the EPA.
Despite this bright future that we anticipate, the professor of Sociology, the young people face this very difficult. As emerges from the report that this week is going to publish the Centro Reina Sofia Adolescence and Youth. This barometer shows that the impact of the crisis was higher among young people in spain than in other european countries. "To measure the emancipation, we study public policy, economic situation and cultural factors. In this aspect, Spain is still below that of their neighbors. And the gap continues to grow," says Eulalia Alemany, of the Centre Reina Sofia. Another problem that will face young people as Severino Edjagn. "My friends and I see very difficult to find a good stable job. Rather, we think that we will be jumping from one post to another", sums up this student's VET of 25 years.THOSE WHO HAD 20 YEARS PRIOR TO THE CRISIS, ANA PASTOR, 37 YEARS | Archaeologist “The new generations are more competitive than us,”
In September 2010, THE COUNTRY launched the ambitious series (Pre -) unemployed, where over 20 deliveries radiografiaba the youth who was facing a crisis that is then just beginning. In it, the archaeologist and restorer Ana Pastor lamented the damage to find work that you carried your extra preparation. “I wont remove from my resume the two races that I have,” he said. It's been eight years in which the Pastor has been able to improve their economic situation. But to live of their profession still appears to be a chimera.
When he gave the interview, his dream was to work as a restorer of archaeological property. He succeeded for about a year and a half. But the crisis that struck with force in the cultural sector— gave to the fret with your company. And Shepherd, who in 2010 was complaining of being too prepared, he continued to take shape. Did a masters with a scholarship. Now studying a phd course.
“what if I have met my expectations then? I would say that I have surpassed. I'm very glad I continued to develop myself. But I am clear Makrobet that the title of dr. I do not plan to open new doors for employment,” says on the phone from Barcelona. Today, Pastor reconciles a work of survival in a company customer with their doctoral courses.
after the age of 37 years, has the perspective to compare themselves with younger students with whom they live. “Those who are coming behind us are more competitive. The crisis has made them more individualistic. And in the University I see inequalities of class very strong that I did not see when I started to study”, she concludes.CLARA FERNANDEZ, 33 YEARS old | Actress and waitress “The more young people have become accustomed to the precarious”
THE COUNTRY has contacted with some protagonists of the series 2010 a (Pre -) unemployed. The idea is to analyze how it has gone since then to some young people at the start of the crisis showed their frustration with a labour market that is collapsing; and to compare their situation with that of those today who are of the age that they had then. Clara Fernandez was one of the protagonists of the series, where it listed the problems they had faced in order to have a paid job. Now it takes three years in Lucerne (Switzerland), where he moved for personal reasons.
The few outings of his career of psychology led to Fernandez, now with 33 years, to devote himself to his passion: the theatre. In Lucerne, in addition to learning German and working as a waitress in a cultural centre, has managed to develop his artistic side in a theater company and a circus.
"I'm specializing in puppets. And I can devote myself to this because in Switzerland it is developed the idea of having a part-time job just to pay the bills; and that you leave time to take care of the things that really interest you," says by phone before you enter in your shift as a waitress.
What is the difference you see between it and the generations that come behind us? "They have got used to the precariousness. Believe that is the norm, because it is the life they have lived," he answers. Is the difference with the same age, who grew up thinking that everything was on his side and came face to face with the crisis. "My mother told me that if I studied I was going to go well. And look at me, I have three races and the future I have to cultivate every day."THE twenty-something's CURRENT, GUILLERMO REBOLLO, 21 YEARS | Student, “Surely, I will have to go to work outside of Spain”
Guillermo Rebollo interrupted the writing of an essay on the Law of Gender-based Violence to answer the call of THE COUNTRY. Studying the double degree in Sociology and Political Science at the Complutense University of madrid, she speaks English and French and has made it clear that, before jumping into the jungle of the labour market, prefer to continue their education. "Without a master, it will be very difficult to find a good job," he says.
After this entire journey academic, Rebollo looks more outside than inside Spain. "Surely I will have to leave to work abroad, preferably to Europe," he says. This young man of 21 years do not see this forced emigration as something negative: "I want to live out. But I also see that I do not have another option. I doubt that in Spain to go to find a job in my field". Here is where you see a difference between your generation and the previous. Before, he says, young people are going when they had no other remedy. But he and his friends see in the stranger an option palatable.
This is a subjective perception. But what the statistics show is that their peers attend more to the classroom than their older brothers: from 2000 to 2018, the percentage of young people who only studied has increased 18 points, while those who only work have also fallen 18 points.
The last difference between the one and the other is, according to Rebollo, the worst job prospects of those born in the nineties. "We're going to have to pringar more years as fellows. I'm afraid to end up in a state of precariousness eternal. So I think also to study oppositions".VICENTE BELAIRE, 22 YEARS | lab Technician “Many companies want you to stay always fellow - ”
22 years, Vincent Belaire is very close to the example of the previous generation. This student of FP shares the classrooms of the higher grade of laboratory technician with classmates of 35 years who left school in the heat of the boom of the Spain of the brick.
"they say that before it was easier to find a job with a good salary. But as they had training, with the crisis remained unemployed," says Belaire, which is comforting to think that thanks to your practical studies will be able to find a job. "Although, yes, I'll have to adapt to conditions more harsh than before," he explains.
Belaire considered to be very well trained. After studying the higher degree of Environmental Chemistry, is now in the Environmental Health. And is happy to be able to enjoy one of the technical advances that will facilitate your work. This is the "pro" of having your age. "The counter" detects also with sharpness: the conditions of the labour market. "Many companies, not all, require you to have a period too long of a fellow. It is something that I talk a lot about with my companions. We are afraid that we only take from scholars; and who intend to continue always so," says Belaire, which belongs to the 35% of Spanish students that after high school, opting for FP. Is this a percentage is still low compared to 50% for the EU.
Belaire is aware that it will be difficult to the day that you want independence from their parents. Go to live alone or it poses. "With the price of rents, I do not see possible to rent by myself. I would like to go to live with friends."