As the Swiss voting public in June of 2016, with a large majority the Initiative for an unconditional basic income rejected, you might have thought, the idea had been buried Once and for all. But far from it. In Silicon Valley today are serious about the future of the economy to discuss, without that this concept is benevolent. Among the prominent advocates of Facebook co-founder Chris Hughes, the Venture Capitalist Marc Andreesen, the Web Maestro Tim O'reilly and Sam Altman, the CEO of the Tech incubator Y Combinator. Given the influence of this illustrious circle in the area of digital media, the idea of basic income for a period is likely to remain topic.
That the concept comes up just now and just here, is nothing more than a plausible. The rapidly advancing technological change raises the question of whether it is ultimately to provide people at all. Because if people will not be able to earn their living with a job income, then the concept of a universal basic income is downright.
pictures: The basic income in Switzerland
The recent progress in the area of robotics and artificial intelligence, it was doubtful whether the last bastions of the human work force are actually safe from mechanization. Since time immemorial, experts have pointed out how difficult it was to build a robot, the napkins can fold, if they show the limits of mechanisation and wanted to prove that the man with his dexterity and his Hand-eye coordination of the machine is still superior. Now, the German company Denso has developed a robot, napkins, linen, etc. together. Napkin folds don't like to be the most demanding task of all time, but Densos development, success, a Job, the skill requires, not more, per se, is safe.
When the robot cares for and comforts
If not the activities are safe, and require the Hand-eye coordination, but those that require empathy, compassion, and interpersonal skills? The children of gardeners, the marriage counselor, the Rabbi, the Nurse at home, their productivity is based on their social skills in the direct encounter with the Opposite, will not be replaced so soon by Alexa and Siri.
Or is it? In Japan, where the demographic conditions of the cost of care to rise at home constantly, and engineers of Riken and Sumitomo Riko Labs developed a life-sized robot in Teddy bear form of the name Dinsow that provides basic services in the health sector and also conversation operates, group activities directs and suffering gives patients support and Gestures of Affection.
Video: nurse Dinsow
maintains bedridden Japanese: maintenance robot Dinsow. Video: YouTube / dinsowrobotic
one Thinks of these examples, you come to the realization that jobs for humans will soon be a thing of the past. A good Argument for a universal basic income.
However, this idea meets with considerable problems in the practical implementation. A basic income of 10'000 dollars per year would get every adult in the United States, would exceed the cost of the entire current state budget. Even if it is only to households below the poverty line – at the Federal level, this threshold is 50'000 dollars – would be granted, cheat on expenses, the cost is still $ 400 billion, or one-tenth of the current state. The payments would be set once the income of a household rises to over 50'000 dollars, that would be a strong incentive to abandon the work, the closer the threshold gets, because the marginal tax rate for a household in such a location would be astronomical. The payments could also be phased out gradually rather than abruptly when the threshold is Reached. But that would push up the cost even more.
the premise of a world without work itself can be questioned. The Ludditen, the angry English textile workers, warned over two centuries ago against this spectre. In 1930, John Maynard Keynes described a world in which people, thanks to the help of sophisticated machines, not more than fifteen hours of work per week. But it came different. The breakneck pace of technological change shows or not: The story is that for every job that was displaced by the mechanization, several other areas emerged. The Ludditen – not detected at the threshold of the Industrial Revolution – what was coming, not surprised. More amazing is that even the brightest minds of Silicon Valley to see it – after about 200 years of technological progress and employment growth.
history shows that people are more than willing to accept this new job. You are willing to work more than fifteen hours per week – an adequate remuneration provided. This is the crux of the matter: people want to work, if the wage is high enough to make the task attractive. The companies, however, are set only if the wage is low enough that the person can provide the services at a better price than the robot Dinsow.
The more productive the robots are, the more likely it is that a market wage, which could satisfy both sides. This approach suggests that there is a superior Alternative to the universal basic income: the universal wage grant. A uniform subsidy of, say, 5 or 10 francs per hour of work, on the part of the state for each of these employees would mean that for every Individual working is more attractive than inaction, because to be more profitable. Also, the company would calculate the decision between a worker and a robot that replaced him, in a different way: The employee is not subsidized, the machine.
usefulness and needed to be
A uniformly-designed wage subsidy would ensure that those who run a particular risk, to be by machinery displaced, especially less-skilled workers, their relatively low wages can't be cut even more, to keep you informed of the price in terms of employment. At the same time, a grant of 5 or 10 francs, would have only a minor impact on the cost and the employment of better qualified with higher wages. Survey
do you Support the idea?Yes
But the most important Argument for this approach is the fact that work gives people satisfaction and new skills. Work creates a sense of meaningfulness, and will not be Used, the setting, people loitering all day in my pajamas on the Sofa around and plays video games. Work is not allowed to collect only economically valuable experiences, but also to acquire interpersonal skills that make us more productive members of society.
it starts with basic things: A regulated daily work teaches, to show up on time. Often working as part of a group, which requires the development of skills in verbal and non-verbal communication, listening and cooperation. The ability to listen, to communicate, to cooperate, and in others extends far beyond the workplace: it makes for a more harmonious living together in society, and to promote more constructive Politics.
Since time immemorial, work is an indispensable Element of human societies. The focus is on General wage subsidies instead of a universal basic income takes account of this fundamental fact.
© Project Syndicate (financial and economic)
Created: 17.12.2018, 15:31 PM