Immanuel Kant has not only written three books on the critique of human reason, but also more on the "causes of earth tremors". The last of which appeared in 1776, "on the occasion of the disaster, which has affected the Western countries of Europe towards the end of the previous year". Was the sacrifice meant to the earthquake of Lisbon, with 60,000 deaths. As a scout, Kant wanted to liberate the natural disaster from the stamp of the Evil one, or even a punishment from God. However, as a Deist, he warned: The man had "no right to expect the laws of nature, ordered by God, in a loud comfortable". It still applies, even if you leave God aside.
Today, the Lisbon earthquake as a mother of seismological and geological research read and as a grandmother of the insurance industry. So clarified anyway, Nicolai sees it Hannig in his new study on natural disasters, their Prevention and risks. With the right Hannig notes that terms such as natural hazards and natural disasters are anthropocentric-that is, the impact of natural events on the people of my. Its perceptions and reactions to the external nature enclose in the historically short period since the earthquake of Lisbon, as well as alarm-ISM and Preparedness against natural hazards, such as natural enthusiasm and a "disaster romance" of the 19th century. Century. More recently, the modern and the post was followed by a modern disaster tourism, media voyeurism, and disaster simulations.
Who knows, in 1846, was rocked by an earthquake in Bonn?
The non-affected part of the society "addressed" natural disasters in the easiest way: through forgetfulness and repression. Who knows, on the Lisbon earthquake, a volcanic eruption followed on Iceland in 1783, the consequences of which the whole of Europe got to feel for a year? A landslide shook in Goldau, 1896, Switzerland, and a major earthquake in 1846, Bonn and the surrounding area? Prussia experienced, 1840, the flood and Levee failures on the Nogat and Vistula, a cyclone devastated in 1898, an industrial area in Cologne-Bayenthal. The greatest natural disaster of the 19th century. Century, the eruption of the volcano Krakatau, which called for 36 000 Deaths was in 1882. The new century began with the earthquake of San Francisco 1906 (3000 Dead, 28 000 houses destroyed). Lower Austria experienced in 1941 a flood disaster, which was only hot because Goebbels ordered, the word disaster "from the entire language eliminate use of" and replace by "big emergencies".
Our current disaster memory, after a two-war disaster, with the help of the Or-dike breach in 1947, was overcome with a United German, Polish and Soviet forces of the Red army. In Germany, he is perhaps less remembered than the storm surge on the North sea in 1953, the Hamburg storm flood of 1962, in which Helmut Schmidt as disaster, managers best. His party friends, Gerhard Schröder, and Matthias ("Deichgraf") Platzeck made it to him later, and won elections.
the curse and blessing of natural disasters
you could Almost talk cynically of the curse and blessing of natural disasters: a curse for the victims, blessing for the insurance industry and a stage for the policy. But it is not that simple. Hannig cited the leading social historians of the Empire and the Weimar Republic, Otto Hintze with the finding that hydraulic engineering had become the driving force of the internal state of education – what can only anarchists miss. The Same applies for alpine construction and forestry measures, the Switzerland of nearly a century of safety from falling from a Mountain, and avalanche hazards, for the development of seismographic and Storm warning services, as well as of Technical auxiliary works, which form the basis of public disaster preparedness.
all of This would not have been without control, and control of funding through a strong state. Made it to the state but also to the main person responsible for disasters of its own kind, the failure is due to incorrect planning, Technology, and fundamental interventions in ecological processes, with consequences for climate and the environment were triggered. The bottom line is that everything was safe, but as in Kafka's parable, "The construction of" new uncertainties are created.
carelessness of the Insured
help no insurance, although reinsurance companies since the middle of the 19th century. Century distributing large risks from natural disasters to national and international insurance associations. As a flip side of insurance of elemental damage to the carelessness of the Insured, which is neglected in the trust to damages in the necessary self-provision. Today it is part of the insurance terms and conditions, but in the case of both is not enough to damage cover.
After hurricane Andrew in Florida in 1992, only two-thirds of the Total claims, were replaced, and nine reinsurance companies had to declare bankruptcy. After hurricane Katrina, which blew up in 2005, all of the previous orders of magnitude, had to help the state with billions in aid. At the latest, in the 21st century. Century, we know that as a result of climate change, further, higher and unpredictable natural hazards threaten.
Are the risks at all natural? Hannigs book "Calculated risks", which ends with the year 1980, makes a Stop at the threshold to the magnitude of complex natural and technical disasters, such as Fukushima, which are neither insurable nor by prevention or the use of technology to manage.
A unsecured world with unkalkulierten hazards
cast A glance on the unlimited risk has Christopher Wehner in his 2017 published a summary of the safety policy, safety production and Expertise in Germany and the United States ("The insurance of the nuclear risk", wall of stone) by the people unleashed forces of nature. He cites American studies, the talk of a "non-quantifiable risk of Disaster", has long been exploded, the purpose of optimism for the German insurance industry. The campaigned in 1967 in a display, nuclear power plants are insured "hopefully Alliance".
Although the German insurance industry joined together for the "German nuclear reactor insurance community" (DKVG), but also was not without an additional, initially on 500 million D-Mark from the limited state of liability. This now had to "blow sum unlimited" extended, and could – as in Chernobyl – the state budget of a single state and the international community. For Christoph Wehner marking the "Transition to an increasingly precarious world," with incalculable dangers.More about
storm flood city 50 years ago, in HamburgBarbara Young
Nicolai Hannig: Calculated risks. Natural disasters and Preparedness since 1800. Wallstein-Verlag, Göttingen, 2019. 654 P., 75 Fig., 39,90 €. The book is from Monday, 4. March, available in bookstores.