a Large political consensus is that Sweden needs to become more innovative. Without strengthened capacity for innovation, it will be difficult for Swedish companies to meet the competitiveness and increase the productivity, and thus ultimately difficult to offer new jobs and higher wages.
the Swedish industrial policy has, however, for a longer time focused on the structural equity gap and put a large amount on trying to fix this. According to the office at growth analysis (2015) amounted only to the direct business subsidies to 27 billion in 2011. This amount is not included in agricultural aid, EU funding and a number of small support. The amount, which today are substantially higher, and corresponded to more than half of the state income tax on work.
, based on a five-year research projects of over fifty new studies, shows, however, that it is difficult to demonstrate the existence of market failures in the Swedish capital market, its potential size and the sectors in which there is a problem. It is not primarily the lack of capital that prevents the emergence of new innovations. We show in our new book, "Innovation policy for growth".
the Authorities and politicians can hardly identify the companies or sectors where future innovation will occur. They lack both the information and the incentives required. The result is that the alleged market failures have been replaced by politikmisslyckanden.
In several scientific articles and a doctoral thesis shows the Ratios of research in addition to, there is no clear, positive impact of business in terms of growth or employment. This applies particularly to the regional levels. In other words it is extremely doubtful whether business subsidies actually contribute to the growth and new jobs.
Authorities and the politicians, can hardly identify the companies or sectors where future innovation will occur. They lack both the information and the incentives required. The result is that the alleged market failures have been replaced by politikmisslyckanden. International research gives a similar picture.
with little coordination between them , some companies also put in the system to usurp a large number of support – they are developed to bidragsentreprenörer. Instead of developing new products and services, chasing the grants.
A policy of this kind is likely to have reached the end of the road. An innovation policy for growth need to be based on the understanding that the prerequisite for innovations, entrepreneurship and functioning of markets. It must be deleted from the business's real needs.
Current research shows that the greatest potential for improvement with regard to skills and institutions, that is to say, taxes, laws, and regulations that affect business.
Not least, this new, fast-growing companies. But even large, established companies need to develop new competencies in order to successfully manage a transition to new technology. Missmatchningen in the labour market have also increased during the last decades, more and more employees are thus over-, under - or felutbildade.
In the present is only 40 per cent of the labour force is matched in the sense that the workers have a job that corresponds to utbildningskompetensen. This is obviously a negative for wage earners, but it also beats against the innovation performance of enterprises.
Several different types of measures are needed. Not least, the educational relevance of working life increase. This can only be achieved through employers ' participation and involvement in the educational design and implementation. Control and resursfördelningssystemen in need of reform, but also cultures and attitudes need to be changed to support this development. Important is also that the companies themselves offer internships that enable work-based learning.
another conclusion is that private finance through own savings, angel investors or venture capital firms continues to be important for the financing of innovation. Competent capital is capital that has been generated and reinvested in the competition on the markets, without the interference of bureaucratic administrators.
for example, According to the World economic forum's report by 2017-2018 ranked Sweden as the 103rd country in the delkomponenten ”their effect on incentives to work” and 108:e in delkomponenten ”total tax burden”. Here there is a clear potential for improvement.
Lower income taxes and a low capital tax is therefore essential for the future of innovative entrepreneurship. A first step – which, according to new research even leads to a reduction in tax revenue – would be to abolish the värnskatten. Decreased business support also opens up for more general reductions, but also for more targeted measures.
such A applies to the taxation of employee stock options. The issue is currently the subject of investigations and appeals. Options are important for new and growing businesses should be able to attract and retain talent – the employees get a share in any growth in value further in the future if the company's business concept succeed. Many avoid, however, in the present time to use options, then marginal tax rates can amount to more than 60 per cent. This is a clear decision as soon as possible.
today, There are major shortcomings in the exercise of public authority and law enforcement, both as regards the English rules and the EUROPEAN rules. Permits, building permits, licences and various forms of tillståndsgivningar often draws out the time, in some cases for many years. Studies also show that the costs strikes disproportionately against smaller and new companies.
Here, the reform momentum has stalled. The period of deregulation which could be seen up to the 2008-2010 have come to a standstill. In comparison with nearby countries such as Finland and Denmark, Sweden has also lost ground.
A reduction in the regulatory burden are central to Sweden's future innovation capacity. Reforms in the area should reasonably not be especially costly, which is why it is strange that more is not being done.
. A workable policy needs to take its starting point in the industry and actual challenges.
all in all, we see here that there is great potential for policies to create better opportunities for increased innovation in new as well as established companies. It is important that a process of reform, this approach will started, quite regardless of the government's partisan composition.