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Ten years have passed since the discovery of Higgs boson

On July 4, 2012, exactly ten years ago the equation that Robert Brout, Francois Eglert, and Peter Higgs created in 1964 predicted the existence and was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1965.

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Ten years have passed since the discovery of Higgs boson

On July 4, 2012, exactly ten years ago the equation that Robert Brout, Francois Eglert, and Peter Higgs created in 1964 predicted the existence and was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1965. (Brout had died before). It became a simple formula on a whiteboard and became a significant milestone in the history and development of science. After five decades of research, the event was possible thanks to the work done at the Large Hadron Collider, (LHC), via the ATLAS/CMS particle detectors of European Organization for Nuclear Research, (CERN). It ushered in an era of scientific study and understanding.

The Higgs boson is of comparable importance to the discovery of DNA in biology or evidence of atomic/molecular structure in Chemistry. It is a technological milestone similar to the landing of a human being on the Moon, but the scientific repercussions of it are far more significant," says Antonio Pich, director at the CPAN (National Center for Particle, Astroparticle and Nuclear Physics). This includes all Spanish groups involved in the discovery and subsequent testing of the Higgs boson.

The LHC discovered a particle that was identical to the Standard Model. This is the best theory currently available to explain the elementary particles that make up the universe. It contains all of the fundamental particles that make up matter. These are the smallest parts of all that is known, or fundamental particles.

These are the first things to appear after the creation of the universe. They can be divided into two types: fermions or bosons. These are the elements that make up matter such as electrons muons taus and quarks. They give rise to basic components such as stars, chairs, beer, and newspapers. Bosons are what makes particles interact. Photons, gluons and W and Z bosons are some examples of bosons.

The Standard Model places great importance on the latter because it is the element that gives all particles mass. This hypothesis was confirmed by the 2012 discovery.

This is a significant step forward in our understanding of the universe. Two independent Nature articles have presented the most recent results on the properties of this elementary particle. According to the Higgs theory there is a quantum field, the so-called Higgs, that extends across the entire universe. It can be compared to the ocean. The Higgs field is the entire surface of the water and the Higgs bosons are the equivalent to the H2O molecules it contains. This resistance determines the particle's mass, as it is created when a particle crosses the quantum field.

Many of the predictions of the Standard Model have been proven wrong by new experiments. For example, the Higgs boson does not possess quantum spin, which is one of two intrinsic properties of particles along with an electric charge. Fermions also get their mass through the Higgs field. They have also discovered the mass of Higgs boson, which is approximately 125,000 million electronvolts (GeV), and this is a fundamental constant in the universe that was not predicted by Standard Model.

They also have observed rare particle phenomena and made more precise measurements of Standard Model phenomena.

Ten years later, many questions remain about this discovery. The knowledge we have about the Higgs boson so far only covers ordinary matter, which only 5% of all the Universe. However, the Standard Model doesn't provide any information relative to the 95% that is dark matter. This is the matter that doesn't interact with the electromagnetic fields and therefore cannot be seen. It also includes dark energy, which is responsible for expanding the Universe. Science is still trying to figure out the properties of each.

This means there are still many unknown phenomena that can be discovered, including the possibility of dark matter being created by the Higgs boson's disintegration or the existence multiple Higgs bosons. These answers were anticipated years ago. However, CERN physicists want to answer the remaining questions to maximize the LHC's potential.

Run 3 is an example of this. The LHC is now in its third period of activity after three years of maintenance and updating. It will be active for four years. Its ability to record unprecedented numbers and powers of collisions, reaching an energy record of 13.6 billion electronvolts, is one of its greatest achievements. This will improve the quality of the studies.

"The LHC is still in its infancy and there may be new breakthroughs. The LHC is not perfect, but it has its limits. New accelerators are being developed to allow us to explore the mysteries of our universe." Aurelio Juste Rosas, ICREA researcher at IFAE, who studies proton collisions -proton at the LHC's ATLAS experiment, says that new accelerators are needed in order to keep penetrating these mysteries. The Standard Model does not represent the only way to understand the universe.

We will be able to gain new perspectives on the universe over the next four-years if we can find the answers that we seek. This will include its subatomic level to its entire extent (how it got to the place it is) and its future. Pich says that a new exciting phase of scientific research is emerging, which we expect will lead to great surprises. Javier Fernandez Menendez (full professor at the University of Oviedo), researcher of CMS experiment, and responsible for Quality Control and Data Monitoring at CMS," says Javier Fernandez Menendez. "Not giving in is the key."

The Higgs boson is also known as "the God particle", despite disagreements among physicists. This nickname was inspired by a popular science book about elementary particles written by Leon Lederman (Nobel Prize in Physics), published in 1993.

Lederman's book was originally called "The Goddamn Particle: If the universe is the answer, then what's the question?" ('The damn particle: If the universe is the answer to your question, then what's the question? Given the time and difficulty it took to discover the Higgs boson (it took over 50 years), "The God particle" is the English translation. The editors considered it offensive, and decided that "The God particle" would be more appealing and commercial. The book was a success and the formula for referring to the Higgs boson was popular.

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