"The routine vaccination against human papilloma virus (hpv) has dramatically reduced the number of dangerous skin lesions among young women in Scotland. On the basis of the so-called herd immunity has also unvaccinated women benefited from the initiative, research shows."
"Since 2010, is offered to all girls in Sweden, a hpv vaccination when they are 10-12 years old. The purpose is to protect against the human papilloma virus which is transmitted sexually and that later in life can cause cervical cancer."
"In Sweden, it has not yet started to see any effect on the incidence of cervical cancer, because it has not passed long enough time. In Scotland, however, began in the general vaccination two years earlier, and at slightly older children, and where you can now observe that the number of dangerous skin lesions on the young women livmoderhalsar (cervix) has decreased dramatically, something that is put in connection with the vaccinprogrammet."
"cell changes on the cervix are usually divided into a three-grade scale: light, moderate and severe according to their risk to develop into dangerous (invasive) cancer. Affected every year 30 000 Swedish women of any type of skin lesions, but only about 450 are diagnosed with cervical cancer."
"In Scotland introduced the vaccine in 2008 for girls 12-13 years old with a so-called catchup programme for girls up to 18 years of age."
"the Scientists, working at the University of Edinburgh, analyzed the test scores from the 138 692 women in their 20s had left a smear through the screening for such changes, occurring both in Scotland and in Sweden."
"the Results, published in the British Medical Journal, shows that in comparison with the unvaccinated women born in 1988, so had the number of dangerous (severe) skin lesions among vaccinated women born 1995 and 1996 decreased by 89 percent. The number of light and moderate skin lesions decreased by 79 and 88%."
"Protected by the majority"
"the Study also shows that vaccination was more effective if the women had been vaccinated at a young age, than in late adolescence. In addition, the synthesis also a certain reduction of the number of skin lesions among unvaccinated women, the researchers believe, depends on the so-called herd immunity. That is to say, when the risk of infection for a non minority is decreasing, thanks to the vaccinated majority."
"the Scientists note that the study has its limitations. Among other things, on the grounds that it only proceeded from women who had participated in cervical smear tests. The probability that a woman participates in a such sampling is higher among vaccinated than among the unvaccinated, something that makes the effect of the vaccine risk to be over-interpreted, the researchers write. Nevertheless, they believe that the result is so clear that it is possible to apply to the population as a whole."
"the Human papilloma virus (hpv) is the most common sexually transmitted infection in Sweden."
"Hpv is a group of viruses that includes more than 200 different types. Thirteen hpv types are classified as högriskvirus and can cause various types of cancer. Hpv types 16 and 18 are the most commonly used högrisktyperna for cancer."
"the Virus is spread via skin - and slemhinnekontakt and can cause various types of cancer, like cancer of the cervix (cervixcancer) or cancer of the pharynx and the small intestine."
"most sufferers don't notice it at all and the infection can heal by itself. In some cases, however, the infection become chronic, which can increase the risk of various forms of cancer."
"Vaccination against hpv is included in the national public vaccination program for children since 2010. In Sweden, except in Blekinge, the program is limited to girls."
"Through the school health service offers the vaccine to all girls in grades 5-6."