Entrepreneurs in the maffiabranschen is dependent on a myriad of relations with the local community. Maffiaföretaget keeps order in the territory, watch over the transactions in the market, and avtvingar operators a fee. The mafia works in the same sphere as the state, which for this job avtvingar operators tax.
In a previous book, ”Mafias on the move”, showed Oxfordsociologen Federico Varese that it is virtually impossible for a maffiaföretag to move the core of the business (the organisation of patronage) to any other place than that in which it is rooted. At a departmental encounter the mafia on the same type of problems that would face a british politician who tried to pull off a campaign in France.
Also in the ”Mafia life”, Varese's new and liberating oakademiska book, runs like a red thread this mafia statslika character, and the perspective is broadened to a comparison between the Cosa nostra (both in Sicily and in the united states), the Russian mafia, the japanese Yakuza and the triads in Hong kong. These organizations are characterized by, in addition to being a variety of beskyddarfirmor in (and then cut-throat) competition with each other, share certain standards and values, something that is highlighted by the fact that one is baptized into the organisations as well as in a religion. The purpose of the initiationsriten is that you should get a new identity, and as well as when it is about religious experience testified that if the feeling of being ”reborn”.
the involvement of also just religious symbols, madonnebilder, bibles, etc In an interesting section in the book associated ban on female mafiosi to the religions traditional misogyni. But Varese also points out how dangerous love is for these organisations. Love does not allow the lie, and thus becomes a hole through which deadly secrets may be leaked. Therefore, cultivate the mafias a homosocialitet who despise women, and love is resisted for the benefit of the policy, for example, by dynastic marriage, as well as in the kungahusens age-old practice of: marriage is a alliance of interests.
”Mafia life” is a both infalls and thought provoking book, that could possibly have aims toward some clearer conclusions. You can follow with the author on many trips and many meetings with the more or less shady elements of the earth. You get a peek in the vip room at the world's most profitable casinos, tatueringstyper, vapenkulturer, mordmetoder, the history of film (also maffiaproducerade movies), signalspråk. Speaking of the difficulties to communicate important messages to the rest of the world that is not at the same time reveals to the police that the man engaged in the violation of the law told the joke: ”What makes a postmodern mafioso? He gives you an offer that you can't understand.”
It is a consistently rational operations. Rapid adaptation is done in the context of changes of markets, technology, or increased state repression. So did the man in the street and for the mafia golden Russian 90s the trouble to hide the bodies in the past in 30-35% of cases. During the Putinerans more repressive state, the mafia in the day, changed to hide the bodies in 85% of cases. In Sicily practiced method is to dissolve the bodies in acid, it needed 50 gallons and takes about three hours. The sicilian situation is characterized otherwise of the major problems for the Cosa Nostra. The economic crisis has, since 2008, stifled much of the economic activity on the island, immigrationsvågen has generated both new competing groups and of some strength to say no to the mafia's demands. The massive repression has resulted in no less than nearly 7% of Cosa Nostra's members now are protected by, and cooperating with the authorities.
difficult to export, but it is certainly not money and not what you could call ”normal” criminality (e.g. drug trafficking). When it comes to money laundering has recently Danske bank and, as a Mission review highlighted, Swedbank announced to have your hands deep down in a syltburk with blood money. In more maffialuttrade parts of Europe, such as Italy, have sharper laws. Where to shake the prosecutor on the head about how easy it is to turn the black money to white in northern Europe, and Varese, point much really on the weak link of the private banks in their efforts to access the wash of money with illegal origin.
Varese shows that Italy's eternal dilemma, cruising between the authoritarian state which penetrates the back of the mafia and a more democratic and fair state, which allowed the mafia to thrive, even in Russia, China, and Japan. Grim facts for the democratically-minded.
How does the Varese that the mafia can be fought? He emphasizes that the legal institutions effectively must be able to judge. That different ethnicities need to be integrated (it shows the examples of Russia and Japan and even the united states then maffiaproblemet which declined in pace with that the italians ceased to be discriminated against). People generally closes up behind the law – here he exemplifies with if people are inclined to go in by for the fallen mob boss, or the fallen maffiabekämparen. But Varese is also a supporter of give the defectors, the incentives (reduced sentences) to cooperate with justice, something which is practiced with success in both the united states and Italy.
established fully independent churches, where the various gangs do not share the norms and ceremonies – as, for example, Salfordgänget in England, whose leader Paul Massey managed to spread both fear and win the consensus of the local community. Police met with a ”wall of silence”, and Massey ran for, and with the mayor and four (had the electoral system been proportional, he had taken a seat in the municipal council).
Maybe we are heading towards such a situation in different places in Sweden? In the fall came the report from researchers at the Institute for futures studies showing that mc-gangs and criminal networks in socially vulnerable areas include more than 5,000 people each (the sicilian mafia is usually said to have 5.000 members). There were so many surprised the researchers, who also pointed out that uppklarandeprocenten on murder in the gängmiljön is only 20-30%. In recent years, parts of the Swedish territory has become svårpatrullerat. Blåljuspersonal affected by the stone throwing and the shot with the fireworks. Fifteen percent of the police officers who work with this have had to seek treatment for injuries they received.
One gets the impression that a crack between, on the one hand, the police/prosecutors and, on the other, courts/attorneys is widening in the country. The last think that the standard of proof is too high, and the latter invokes the rule of law (see, for example, the DN Stockholm 19/2). The same contradiction goes in the day in the view of the so-called kronvittnen (that the state is ”buying” testimony against the reduced sentences), something that nowadays, six of the eight parliamentary parties are in favour of (DN 5/3). The other day I ran in the grocery store together with a friend who is a prosecutor. When he hits the american colleagues, they tend to of the Swedish system say: ”But how can you at all get any doomed if you don't give the criminal an incentive to testify?” My friend says that it is impossible to compel someone to testify against a parent without having something to offer.
thinking of the banks, all the money there.
maffiaproblemets crucial point relating to how deep this privatorganiserade protection penetrates the legal economy. If in general the legal business owners and shopkeepers do not get a satisfactory protection of the judicial apparatus, but to be forced to buy the patronage of these private contractors in the industry so quickly on a slippery slope. Then arises a big wave shifts if the lojaliteterna in the society and the whole tillitsekonomin fragmented into large economic costs, and an unreasonably high human price.
if private patronage root in society, it is very difficult to do away with democracy and the rule of law intact. The options are then to either make the state more authoritarian (during the fascism in Italy) or coexist with the mafia.
In the latter case, will the temptation be great to do as they have done in Japan, that is to say, to make the mafia – the Yakuza are with their 78.600 members (2010) the biggest mafia in the world – halvlegal. You start to do business with the through, in practice, to entrust the different samhällssfärer that according to the law, actually belongs to the people through its agent, the state. In Japan is a result of this that Yakuzamedlemmar can be fired from the mafia because the snitch can't do any more harm. In the other mafias, the displeasing member instead prompt murdered.
of Hong kong in China also went to the chinese state, well aware that the triads would be awkward if they gave support to the liberal activists, in for a assimileringsstrategi. In the official statements was willing to work with triads if they were ”patriotic and concerned about Hong kong's stability and prosperity.” And then you should keep in mind that the chinese government has access to far more powerful means than a state that is slowed down by democracy and the rule of law.
the Best is probably yet if the people succeed in creating a state that manages to protect the entire territory.