advice for mothers-to-be, it's not for a lack. Pregnant women should smoke or drink alcohol, their babies no harm. And at birth the Hygiene of the highest bid is, because the child needs to fight back when Leaving the uterus immediately against germs. For a first immune protection, so the previous view, then the enzymes from the maternal first milk, called Colostrum.
The adoption of a five-year research work of the University of Bern has a man now. The group of gastroenterologists, Andrew Macpherson studied for years, the complex processes of digestion, the control of energy metabolism and growth. MacPherson's research group has analysed those transactions, it may prevent harmful bacteria penetrate the intestinal wall and it is on the other hand, allow bacteria fragments of good intestinal bacteria, the wall is pierced. The lymph nodes and then to build up the body's own defense system immune response. Macpherson is in charge of the Europe's leading Bernese laboratory in this field, whose research is published regularly in the journals "Cell" or "Science".
trillions of bacteria
In the intestine, over 500 species of benign bacteria in a number of in total approximately 100 trillion. Investigations inside the Gut, the intestinal flora, also, the Microbiome mentioned, require therefore sophisticated methods. Bred sterile mice that have no intestinal flora, creating a good starting position. Researchers can then keep track of what fed bacteria cause or Good cause.
But the mice are a suitable model? Molecular Medicine Stephanie Ganal-Vonarburg, a member of the MacPherson's research group, has studied in this model, the influence of the Multiple Pregnant women on the newborn. She says: "In the case of mouse and humans, the immune system is very similar, as is the Microbiome. Therefore, the results of the mouse are relatively well transmitted to humans." In addition, Such studies are not in humans is not feasible, because they are sterile.
to explore, however, what is the influence of maternal intestinal bacteria on the growing child, it took another Trick: Once a sterile mouse with intestinal bacteria will be fed, is it to the end of their sterility. The investigation would be distorted. The mother mouse would inhabit during the birth of her Newborn bacterial; and it could not more read, what are the bacteria before birth, and which have influenced after birth the immune system. Here, too, the Macpherson group was a suitable method: you developed the gut bacteria with a short life span of just two days, thereby ensuring that the pregnant mice were only inhabited for a short period of time. Before the birth, they, in turn, were sterile, and their offspring, therefore, only the influence of prenatal maternal bacteria exposed. The fetuses in the womb are self-sterile.
The results could then sit up and take notice. The immune system of the newborn mice differed significantly from the control mice that were prenatally not in the influence of maternal intestinal bacteria:
had formed their innate immune system, in contrast to the control group in part already, in Particular for the protection of the mucous membranes responsible for innate lymphocytes. Your digestive and defense functions were already developed. A number of genes were up-regulated: in Particular, those which encode proteins that help to protect the bowel tissue against possible pathogens. Because the researchers of the carbon atoms of the intestinal bacteria of the mothers of the mice with the slightly heavier carbon-atoms as markers were replaced, were you able to track the bacteria fragments on the basis of these markers to the offspring and their influence in the gut of the newborn to examine. Inflammatory reactions were, if the neonates two weeks after birth, with beneficial bacteria in the gut have been settled. This is in contrast to the control group.Some bacteria fragments, which penetrate the intestinal wall of the mother mouse, and the immune system of the newborn influence, belong to a group of molecules in cells called the aryl hydrocarbon receptors bind, and thus, the Upregulation of important genes to boost. This leads to the production of proteins, the different cells of the innate and acquired immune system boost.The influence of maternal gut bacteria have on the immune system of the offspring, continues after birth. Then the path leads through the mother's milk: the researchers were able to find the selected fragments of the intestinal bacteria.
How the immune system
From this basic research, so Stephanie Ganal Matures-Vonarburg, one can draw the following conclusions: "The intestinal Microbiome allows the immune system to Mature; without this maturation, not only in the gut but throughout the body, a weaker immune system." In addition, it was clear that Pregnant women with what you eat, before and after birth, the immune system of your children has much influence. Because the Microbiome of an adult human is mainly about the food. But which diet is advantageous for a "good" Microbiome?
This will give Ganal-vonarburg, no detailed instructions. But some of the suggestions she has. At the time of her research, she was pregnant, and has often resorted to broccoli dishes. "Broccoli and Brussels sprouts contain molecules that stimulate the maturation of the immune system."
Created: 19.05.2019, 18:34 PM