How often can you bring a man to his life? In 1931, denounced Josef Stalin on September 15. In January 1919 by German soldiers executed Rosa Luxemburg as an enemy of the only true, namely, of Soviet communism. Thus, writes the historian Ernst Piper, in his new biography, Stalin murdered Rosa Luxemburg "for the second Time".
Piper says the literally. The second murder is not entitled to a presumption that Rosa Luxemburg would not have survived the Great Terror in the Soviet Union, in Stalin's phrase. It depends on the language. The fanatic soldiers, the murdered Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht, the founders of the KPD, only what others had said.
unlike it is claimed in the Propaganda of the SPD-led government, thought the "Spartacists" at the time, not a coup. Rosa Luxemburg, who had always taken the view that a Revolution, not "could", you pass easily, refused him decidedly.
books, essays, letters
47-year-old has become in the Polish Zamosc, the daughter of a wealthy Jewish timber dealer, born Rosa Luxemburg. A Hüftleiden you captivated as a little girl for a whole year in bed. Also read and wrote constantly. Already as a high school student, she joined a Marxist underground organization. Her biographer Piper traces the carefully and with empathy. With 17 best-in-Class made Pink the Abitur; shortly thereafter, she fled from the face of the Russian secret police to Zurich and begin their studies there.
study in Switzerland? As A Woman? As A Marxist? Yes. Ironically, Switzerland had already been approved in 1840, women for University studies. In Swiss University towns, the students with Chaim Weizmann (later Israel's first President), met at that time "the revolutionary forces of the whole of Europe".
"freedom", is Rosa Luxemburg's most-cited sentence, "is always the freedom of dissenters." Seriously, Piper documented that this principle was considered for the universities. Rosa Luxembourg, Zurich doctor father Julius Wolf was an outspoken opponent of Marxism. Nevertheless, he recognized the power of his student. "The work," says Wolf, "is to boast of full mastery of the subject matter, great care, great acumen." "A testimony as theoretical aptitude as from a practical view".
Rosa Luxemburg has written a vast amount of books, essays and letters. It is admirable, how many of these texts quoted by Piper in his biography, explains and files: further developments of Marxist theory, clashes with officials, but also violent declarations of love to your childhood friend, Leo Jogiches, was to the 15 years younger Kostya Zetkin or Paul Levi, who defended you in many criminal proceedings and the last great love of your life. And even if, of course, not all texts have the same meaning as in the cited judgment of your doctor father to confirm but almost all of them.
the SPD clamped
The Public Rosa Luxemburg was primarily through their Speeches, Yes, to become a celebrity. She had marveled at even the bourgeois-liberal "Hamburger Abendblatt", "something Fascinating in nature, it has a brilliant eloquence; it is for each of your versions, even the non-socialist audience the regste interest einzuflö, and just yesterday it was the purely objective listeners is clear that it is a woman like her must succeed, the working masses continue to tear".
No wonder, then, that the SPD as, at the time, by far the largest socialist party einspannte in Europe, Rosa Luxemburg, immediately after they had acquired by a marriage of convenience in the Prussian citizenship and after Berlin moved.
The two big men of the party, the Chairman August Bebel and the chief theorist, Karl Kautsky, were, anyway, until the final dismantling of the SPD in 1914, always loyal to her. But quickly the with your increasing choice got always follow cumbersome and bureaucratic to become SPD to sense the critical spirit she had since taken into their ranks.
free public school
in Detail, Piper followed, as Rosa Luxemburg's basic positions were already in the Polish underground work, and then further developed in constant engagement with self-sufficient, to civil recognition, as to their privileges as members of or holders of party offices concerned SPD functionaries on the one hand and with the doctrinaire Bolsheviks on the other side.
These basic items were the nationalization of the means of production, formation of cooperatives, separation of Church and state, free education. Where you mind is under education humanistic education; the "International" she sang as much as arias from Mozart's "Figaro", or the songs of the romantic composer Hugo Wolf, and because you sang it all out loud, and even at night on the road, it remained, what it always was: a big rest störerin.
Even if you bugged your Enjoyed often: she was the opposite of a spasm hen, to know you glowed for your goals, and they believed, how they were to enforce: through demonstrations, Tax refusals and strikes. Above all, the Belief in the spontaneous mass strike as an effective political Instrument always fierce in conflict with the established social Democrats and their control of the trade Union fear learning. Individual Terror, however, she refused until the last vehemently.
Rosa Luxemburg believed, and that was not wrong, their time, to the Proletariat as the subject of the story. That the Proletariat must act as an international community of interest, appeared to her, of course. And so they fought, more pronounced than most of the socialists of their time, against every nationalism.
With the approval of the war credits in 1914, the SPD, Rosa Luxemburg has confirmed this judgment on nationalism in a way that would not have thought of myself as possible. She thought of suicide, but then more and bitter than ever against the nationalism delusion of fighting – an attitude that made it easy for you during the war for three years to imprison, and to explain to you at the end for bird free.
it Was Rosa Luxemburg's political program to its time illusory? Ernst Piper sees the basis of your dispute with Lenin differentiated: "Rosa Luxemburg is the living proof that Marxism, beyond Leninism. Where Lenin in control demanded, she wanted spontaneity."
Ernst Piper: Rosa Luxemburg.A Life. Karl Blessing, Munich 2018. 832 p., approx. 40 Fr. (editor-in-Tamedia)
Created: 11.02.2019, 19:09 PM