A stately Villa at the plate Strasse 47, home of the English seminar of the University of Zurich, close to the house wall, a simple plaque: "Here lived 1894/95 Rosa Luxemburg, 1871/born in 1919, murdered." Including the famous Luxemburg: "freedom is always the freedom of dissenters."
in 1919, murdered. To be more precise: Tomorrow, Tuesday, 100 years ago. In Berlin, the conditions were as confusing as they are dangerous. The war was lost, the Kaiser into exile and fled, as Chancellor of the Reich was the social Democrat Friedrich Ebert, but the Left was hopelessly divided. There were monarchists, Republicans and Revolutionaries – as a co-founder of the Communist party of Germany belonged to Luxembourg decided to the latter. This made them hated and made you the target of counter-revolutionary troops. This murdered Luxemburg and her comrade Karl Liebknecht on 15. January 1919. Luxembourg's corpse, threw the murderers in the Landwehr canal.
a reminder of Luxembourg's Zurich years: The commemorative plaque at the plate Strasse 47.
It was the end of a woman to the most influential figures of the early 20th century. Century, belongs to, especially in the political left outer universe. Luxembourg's way to powerful political actor and opponent of Lenin, began in the Polish Zamost, where they came in 1871 to the world, and ended in Berlin. In between, the Zurich years. Although only nine in number, but nine are important.
it is Important, firstly, because Zurich Rosa Luxemburg to the Economist. Important, secondly, because of the rise of the Polish Marxist had become a Character of the German radical left, but only thanks to a small, but rich manoeuvre with Zurich's participation possible.
in 1897, Luxembourg decided to move from Zurich to Germany, because from there, the social Democrats and the workers in the German-occupied part of Poland were better support. However, they faced the Problem that an effective Engagement in Germany was only possible if you are unable to obtain the Prussian citizenship.
the solution to The problem, Gustav Lübeck was called. The locksmith was the son of the German socialists, Carl Lübeck, which had fled in the 1870s to Zurich, and in whose house Rosa Luxemburg, their first Zurich accommodation had to be found.
Luxemburg and Gustav Lübeck were married in April of 1898 – it was a purely practical marriage with the purpose to make Luxembourg a Preussin. A mere marriage of convenience. Five years later, now at home in Berlin, was Luxembourg from Lubeck (which had remained in Zurich) to get a divorce. About your Ex-man Luxembourg is said to have later mocked in front of all, and blasphemed.
Back to the beginning of Luxembourg Zurich Era. As they had in 1889 at the University of Zurich enrolled, the lanky, small, time, an almost 18-year-old wife already had an eventful political life. Because they had joined in the Warsaw woman's gymnasium, a banned Marxist group, had to Luxembourg to escape and arrived in Switzerland. The escape was not a coincidence: The University of Zurich belonged to a Europe-wide one of the few in which women were allowed to study.
Rosa Luxemburg, during the Zurich years. Image: Wikipedia
Luxembourg, first studied the natural Sciences – with their passion for botany, she accompanied by her whole life. Starting in 1892, she then turned to the subject, which provided her with a sort of tool box for your political work: the Economy. In 1897 she was graduated as the first woman at the University of Zurich, Dr. oec. She had submitted a thesis entitled "The industrial development of Poland". It gave the rating "Magna cum laude".
Luxembourg's special pleasure was to take their Zurich Professor, Austrian economist, Julius Wolf, the debate over the Marxist theory out. Although Wolf is known as a rigid economy, a liberal, was impressed with him in Luxembourg. Later, he wrote that he had kept "the most gifted of the students of my Zurich years, Rosa Luxemburg, who was, of course, came finished as a Marxist from Poland to me, the academic stirrup".
Luxembourg moved during the Zurich years. You chose always and pensions near the University – for example, the house at the slab road 47, in the today, the English are quartered. In addition to studying the young woman was in at the time, such a large and vital the Zurich scene of politically persecuted foreign socialists policy. German, Polish and Russian emigrants, operated from exile in Switzerland with the overthrow of their local governments.
In Zurich, Luxembourg was because of those appearance that made her known internationally: she spoke in 1893 as a Polish delegate at the International labour Congress in the Tonhalle. The Belgian socialist Emile Vandervelde wrote then, Luxembourg had not claimed to be "their thing with such magnetism in the view, and with flaming words," that the hall have listened to her spellbound.
In the socialist Zurich emigrant scene in Luxembourg met the Polish Marxist Leo Jogiches. In contrast to Lübeck, he was the love of your actual big. Until 1906, they were a Couple. (Tages-Anzeiger.ch/Newsnet)
Created: 14.01.2019, 11:23 PM